The Negative Correlation of Spice Intake and Colorectal Cancer: A Statistical Analysis of Global Health Databases

  • Shinjit Mani Department of General Medicine, Faculty of Foreign Students, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0490-0383
  • Nathan Pramanik Department of General Medicine, Faculty of Foreign Students, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation.
  • Deeksha Rao Department of General Medicine, Faculty of Foreign Students, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation.
  • Stuti Sharma Department of General Medicine, Faculty of Foreign Students, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation.
  • Timur R. Akhmetov Department of General Pathology, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation
Keywords: Spices, Colorectal Cancer, Red Meat

Abstract

Background: Colorectal Cancer (CRC) has multiple risk factors and depends highly on diet. Positive associations of red meat and processed meat intake and CRC have been proven, but no research has been conducted on the relation of spice intake and CRC risk. Various in-vitro studies have demonstrated the anticancer activity of chemicals present in spices, which is the main driving force for our statistical analysis.

Methods: We analyzed Global Burden of Disease (GBD) database, Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations (FAO) database, and Global Dietary Database (GDD) using Pearson correlation statistics to find any significant correlation, mainly between spice intake and CRC risk. Data from 1990 to 2013 of 100 countries was collected for the analysis. Twenty-three-year average values (±SD) were calculated for CRC risk, spice, red meat, processed meat, vegetable, and fruit intake. CRC risk is taken as dependent variable whereas all other were independent variables. All variables were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis. Results with p<0.05 were further analyzed using regression analysis.

Results: Pearson correlation showed that spice intake had a significant negative correlation (r= -0.301, p=0.002) whereas red meat (r= 0.722, p<0.001) and processed meat (r= 0.339, p<0.001) had a significant positive correlation with CRC risk.

Conclusion: Significant negative correlation between spice intake and CRC risk indicates that higher spice intake can be preventive against cancer and possibly decrease the risk of colorectal cancer in populations with higher CRC risk.

Author Biographies

Shinjit Mani, Department of General Medicine, Faculty of Foreign Students, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation

Shinjit Mani is currently a 5th year medical student at Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia of a total 6 year program. He completed this particular research work under supervision of Asso. Prof. T.R. Akhmetov, at the Department of Pathology of Kazan State Medical University in 2019. Currently he is working in preclinical laboratory-based cancer research program under supervision of Prof. Sergei Boichuk at the same department of the same university. He was chosen for the “Board of Honor 2019” by the University for his commitment and hard work.

Nathan Pramanik, Department of General Medicine, Faculty of Foreign Students, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation.

Nathan Pramanik is currently a 5th year medical student at Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia of a total 6 year program. He worked in a 4 member research team comprised of medical students, supervised by Asso. Prof. TR Akhmetov and led by Shinjit Mani. Also presented a part of the research data at European Students' Conference, Berlin, Germany.

Deeksha Rao, Department of General Medicine, Faculty of Foreign Students, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation.

Deeksha Rao is currently a 5th year medical student at Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia of a total 6 year program. She worked in a 4 member research team comprised of medical students, supervised by Asso. Prof. TR Akhmetov and led by Shinjit Mani. 

Stuti Sharma, Department of General Medicine, Faculty of Foreign Students, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation.

Stuti Sharma is currently a 6th year medical student at Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia of a total 6 year program. She worked in a 4 member research team comprised of medical students, supervised by Asso. Prof. TR Akhmetov and led by Shinjit Mani. 

Timur R. Akhmetov, Department of General Pathology, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation

Timur R. Akhmetov is an Associate Professor at the Department of Genaral Pathology, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia. He Supervised the 4 member research team led by Shinjit Mani

References

Global Burden of Disease Collaborative Network. Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (GBD 2017) Results. Seattle, United States: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), 2018. Available from http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool; Last updated Aug 01, 2020; cited Aug 01, 2020.

IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Red Meat and Processed Meat. Lyon (FR): International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2018. (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, No. 114.) Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507971/; Last updated Mar, 2018; cited Sep 17, 2020.

Aykan NF. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer. Oncol Rev. 2015 Dec 28;9(1):288.

Demeyer D, Mertens B, De Smet S, Ulens M. Mechanisms Linking Colorectal Cancer to the Consumption of (Processed) Red Meat: A Review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Dec 9;56(16):2747-66.

Hidaka A, Harrison TA, Cao Y, Sakoda LC, Barfield R, Giannakis M, et al. Intake of dietary fruit, vegetables, and fiber and risk of colorectal cancer according to molecular subtypes: A pooled analysis of 9 studies. Cancer Res. 2020 Aug 14;canres.0168.2020.

Cambridge University Press. Cambridge dictionary, Spice. Available from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/spice; Last updated Sep, 2020; cited Sep 17, 2020.

Chen YH, Zou XN, Zheng TZ, Zhou Q, Qiu H, Chen YL, et al. High Spicy Food Intake and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Case-control Studies. Chin Med J (Engl). 2017 Sep 20;130(18):2241-2250.

Mathew A, Gangadharan P, Varghese C, Nair MK. Diet and stomach cancer: a case-control study in South India. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2000 Apr;9(2):89-97.

López-Carrillo L, Hernández Avila M, Dubrow R. Chili pepper consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico: a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Feb 1;139(3):263-71.

Pabalan N, Jarjanazi H, Ozcelik H. The impact of capsaicin intake on risk of developing gastric cancers: a meta-analysis. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2014 Sep;45(3):334-41.

Arora I, Sharma M, Tollefsbol TO. Combinatorial Epigenetics Impact of Polyphenols and Phytochemicals in Cancer Prevention and Therapy. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Sep 14;20(18):4567.

Majidinia M, Bishayee A, Yousefi B. Polyphenols: Major regulators of key components of DNA damage response in cancer. DNA Repair (Amst). 2019 Oct;82:102679.

Imran M, Rauf A, Khan IA, Shahbaz M, Qaisrani TB, Fatmawati S, et al. Thymoquinone: A novel strategy to combat cancer: A review. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Oct;106:390-402.

de Lima RMT, Dos Reis AC, de Menezes APM, Santos JVO, Filho JWGO, Ferreira JRO, et al. Protective and therapeutic potential of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract and [6]-gingerol in cancer: A comprehensive review. Phytother Res. 2018 Oct;32(10):1885-1907.

Mahomoodally MF, Aumeeruddy MZ, Rengasamy KRR, Roshan S, Hammad S, Pandohee J. Ginger and its active compounds in cancer therapy: From folk uses to nano-therapeutic applications. Semin Cancer Biol. 2019 Aug 11:S1044-579X(19)30213-5.

Dosoky NS, Setzer WN. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils of Curcuma Species. Nutrients. 2018 Sep 1;10(9):1196.

Ghandadi M, Sahebkar A. Curcumin: An Effective Inhibitor of Interleukin-6. Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(6):921-931.

Ismail NI, Othman I, Abas F, H Lajis N, Naidu R. Mechanism of Apoptosis Induced by Curcumin in Colorectal Cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 May 17;20(10):2454.

Kunnumakkara AB, Bordoloi D, Harsha C, Banik K, Gupta SC, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin mediates anticancer effects by modulating multiple cell signaling pathways. Clin Sci (Lond). 2017 Jul 5;131(15):1781-1799.

Deng YI, Verron E, Rohanizadeh R. Molecular Mechanisms of Anti-metastatic Activity of Curcumin. Anticancer Res. 2016 Nov;36(11):5639-5647.

Zhou S, Zhang S, Shen H, Chen W, Xu H, Chen X, et al. Curcumin inhibits cancer progression through regulating expression of microRNAs. Tumour Biol. 2017 Feb;39(2):1010428317691680.

Shakeri A, Cicero AFG, Panahi Y, Mohajeri M, Sahebkar A. Curcumin: A naturally occurring autophagy modulator. J Cell Physiol. 2019 May;234(5):5643-5654.

Prachayasittikul V, Prachayasittikul S, Ruchirawat S, Prachayasittikul V. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum): A promising functional food toward the well-being. Food Res Int. 2018 Mar;105:305-323.

Dutta A, Chakraborty A. Cinnamon in Anticancer Armamentarium: A Molecular Approach. J Toxicol. 2018 Mar 29;2018:8978731.

Georgescu SR, Sârbu MI, Matei C, Ilie MA, Caruntu C, Constantin C, et al. Capsaicin: Friend or Foe in Skin Cancer and Other Related Malignancies? Nutrients. 2017 Dec 16;9(12):1365.

Ann M. Bode and Zigang Dong. The Two Faces of Capsaicin. Cancer Res. 2011 April 15; 71(8):2809-2814.

Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations. FAOSTAT. Food balance sheet. Available from: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/FBS; Last updated December, 2019; cited Aug 01, 2020.

Global Dietary Database Consortium, Nutrition and Chronic Disease Expert Group (NutriCoDE). Global Dietary Database 1980-2011. [Unpublished]. Available from: https://www.globaldietarydatabase.org/our-data; Last updated Jul 30, 2020; cited Aug 01, 2020.

Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations. LIFDCs 2016. Available from: http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/lifdc/en/; Last updated Dec 13, 2019; cited Aug 01, 2020.

The World Bank. World Bank Country and Lending Groups. Available from: https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups; Last updated Jul 01, 2020; cited Aug 01, 2020.

Schwingshackl L, Schwedhelm C, Hoffmann G, Knüppel S, Laure Preterre A, Iqbal K, et al. Food groups and risk of colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2018 May 1;142(9):1748-1758.

Bewick V, Cheek L, Ball J. Statistics review 7: Correlation and regression. Crit Care. 2003 Dec;7(6):451-9.

Vieira AR, Abar L, Chan DSM, Vingeliene S, Polemiti E, Stevens C, et al. Foods and beverages and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, an update of the evidence of the WCRF-AICR Continuous Update Project. Ann Oncol. 2017 Aug 1;28(8):1788-1802.

Millen AE, Subar AF, Graubard BI, Peters U, Hayes RB, Weissfeld JL, et al.. Fruit and vegetable intake and prevalence of colorectal adenoma in a cancer screening trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1754-64.

Keum N, Giovannucci E. Global burden of colorectal cancer: emerging trends, risk factors and prevention strategies. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Dec;16(12):713-732.

Published
2020-12-17
How to Cite
Mani, S., Pramanik, N., Rao, D., Sharma, S., & Akhmetov, T. (2020). The Negative Correlation of Spice Intake and Colorectal Cancer: A Statistical Analysis of Global Health Databases . International Journal of Medical Students, 8(3), 238-244. https://doi.org/10.5195/ijms.2020.693
Section
Original Article