International Journal of Medical Students http://ijms.info/IJMS <p>The International Journal of Medical Students (IJMS) is a peer-reviewed open-access journal (ISSN 2076-6327) created to share the scientific production and experiences of medical students and recently graduated physicians worldwide. Our objective is to be the primary diffusion platform for medical students, using standards that follow the process of scientific publication.</p> <p>The Journal receives contributions and unpublished manuscripts of Original Articles, Short Communications, Reviews, Case Reports, Interviews, Experiences, and Letters, which are reviewed by experts (Peer-Reviewers). This supports the quality and validity of the publications.</p> <p>The <em>IJMS</em> is published online triannually by the University Library System, University of Pittsburgh. The Journal's main office is located in the United States of America (USA). Any publication, dissemination, or distribution of the information included in the Journal is permitted if the source is cited (Int J Med Students).</p> <p>This journal provides immediate <em>open access</em> to its content. Our Open Access follows a “<em>diamond model</em>”; the Journal is free to both readers and authors, there are no article processing charges, submissions fees, or any other costs required of authors to submit, review, or publish articles, neither for readers in the <em>IJMS</em>.</p> en-US <p id="copyright">Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show">The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.</li> <li class="show">Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.</li> <li class="show">The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>&nbsp;or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions: <ol> <li class="show">Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.</li> <li class="show">The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.</li> <li class="show">Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.</li> <li class="show">The Author represents and warrants that:<br> <ol> <li class="show">the Work is the Author’s original work;</li> <li class="show">the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;</li> <li class="show">the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;</li> <li class="show">the Work has not previously been published;</li> <li class="show">the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and</li> <li class="show">the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.</li> </ol> </li> <li class="show">The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.</li> </ol> </li> </ol> <p><em>Enforcement of copyright</em></p> <p>The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.</p> <p>If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.</p> <p>If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to <a href="mailto:contact@ijms.org">contact@ijms.org</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Infringing material</em></p> <p>If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to&nbsp;<a href="mailto:contact@ijms.org">contact@ijms.org</a></p> ijms.eic@library.pitt.edu (Francisco Javier Bonilla-Escobar, MD, MSc, PhD(c)) e-journals@mail.pitt.edu (IJMS Contact) Mon, 31 Aug 2020 16:29:21 -0400 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Cover, Credits, & Content http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/716 Copyright (c) 2020 Executive Committee of IJMS http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/716 Mon, 31 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 To Stay at Port or to Go to Sea: Are Clinical Clerkships a Double-Edged Sword During the COVID-19 Pandemic? Where Do We Go From Here? http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/715 Mihnea-Alexandru Găman, Paul MacDaragh Ryan, Francisco Javier Bonilla-Escobar Copyright (c) 2020 Mihnea-Alexandru Găman, Paul MacDaragh Ryan, Francisco Javier Bonilla-Escobar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/715 Mon, 31 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Effect of Schoolbag Weight on Musculoskeletal Pain among Primary School Children in Yaounde, Cameroon: A Cross-sectional Study http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/485 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Heavy schoolbag is known to cause health problems for school children. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of carrying heavy schoolbags on the musculoskeletal pain among primary school children of the two subsystems in Yaounde, Cameroon.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was carried out in primary schools in Yaounde. A total of 457 school-children (8.2 ± 2.2 years) were included, 202 from the French-speaking subsystem, and 255 from the English-speaking subsystem. Parameters studied included weight, height, and schoolbag weight. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic information and potential musculoskeletal pain in three regions: back, shoulders, and neck.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean weight of children and their bags was 28.4 ± 8.2 kg and 5.2 ± 2.3 kg respectively. More than 50% of schoolchildren in the two subsystems carried a schoolbag weighing more than 15% of body weight. The back (38%) was the least affected area in comparison to the shoulders (58.6%) and neck (42.4%) (p &lt; 0.001). Carrying heavy bags and walking to school was associated with pain in the back, shoulders, and neck. School-children in the French-speaking subsystem had lower risk (adjusted Odds Ratio 0.438, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.295-0.651; p &lt; 0.001) to develop a sore neck compared to peers from the English-speaking subsystem.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Carrying heavy schoolbags is associated to musculoskeletal pain in schoolchildren. The means moving to and from school is a main risk factor of developing musculoskeletal pain. French-speaking schoolchildren develop less neck pain than English-speaking schoolchildren.</p> Wiliam Richard Guessogo, Peguy Brice Assomo-Ndemba , Edmond Ebal-Minye, Jerson Mekoulou-Ndongo, Claude Bryan Bika-Lélé, William Mbang-Bian, Eva Linda Djuine-Soh , Jean Bertrand Ondoa, Samuel Honoré Mandengue, Abdou Temfemo Copyright (c) 2020 Wiliam Richard Guessogo, Peguy Brice Assomo-Ndemba , Edmond Ebal-Minye, Jerson Mekoulou-Ndongo, Claude Bryan Bika-Lélé, William Mbang-Bian, Eva Linda Djuine-Soh , Jean Bertrand Ondoa, Samuel Honoré Mandengue, Abdou Temfemo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/485 Mon, 31 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Survey Among Medical Students During COVID-19 Lockdown: The Online Class Dilemma http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/571 <p><strong>Background: </strong>In view of COVID-19 lockdown in India, many colleges started online classes. This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes of, and the factors affecting, medical students attending online classes during lockdown.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We designed an online questionnaire with open-ended, close-ended, and Likert scale questions. Links to the questionnaires were shared with the medical students who have attended at least one online class during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Respondents were 1061 participants from 30 medical colleges from the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in India.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The majority of students – 94% (955/1016) – used smartphones to attend online classes. ZOOM/ Skype – by 57.1% (580/1016) – and Google platforms – by 54.4% (553/1016) – were commonly used. Learning at leisure – 44.5% (452/1016) – was the top reason why students liked online classes, whereas network problems – 85.8% (872/1016) – was the top reason why students disliked them. Lack of sufficient interaction – 61.1% (621/1016) was another reason why students disliked online learning. More than half the participants – 51.7% (526/1016) – did not want to continue online classes after COVID-19 lockdown. More students – 55% (558/1016) – favored regular classes than online classes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Students in our survey did not seem favorably disposed to online classes. Network problems experienced by students should be addressed. Furthermore, teachers should try to make the classes more interactive and educational institutions should address the problems pointed out by the students in order to make online classes more effective in the future.</p> Andrew Thomas, Mohan T. Shenoy, Kotacherry T. Shenoy, Sruthi Suresh Kumar, Aboobakker Sidheeque, C. Khovidh, Jayakumar Parameshwaran Pillai, Pramod Murukan Pillai, Shana Sherin CH, Anna Mathew, Twinkle Zakkir, Sreelakshmi Dileep, Victory Mekha, Sony Raju, Mohammed Junaid K., Sivendu P. Copyright (c) 2020 Andrew Thomas, Mohan T. Shenoy, Shenoy K. T., Sruthi Suresh Kumar, Aboobakker Sidheeque, C. Khovidh, Jayakumar Parameshwaran Pillai, Pramod Murukan Pillai, Shana Sherin CH, Anna Mathew, Twinkle Zakkir, Sreelakshmi Dileep, Victory Mekha, Sony Raju, Mohammed Junaid K., Sivendu P. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/571 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Prognostic Factors in Patients with Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/459 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) is a disease with a high mortality rate, caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, a bacteria transmitted to humans by infected ticks. In 2008 there was a Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) outbreak in the city of Mexicali, México, resulting in an increased mortality rate amongst the area population.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Case-series study of patients admitted to the General Hospital of Mexicali between 2014 and 2019 with a confirmed diagnosis of RMSF. Mortality was compared dividing the population on those ≤20 and younger than ˃21 years of age.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 129 patients’ records during a 5-year period whose diagnosis was RMSF confirmed with PCR were included. Mortality was compared among patients admitted who were younger than ≤20 years of age with that among patients who were older than ˃20 years of age (61 versus 68 respectively), the latter being higher with an OR 4.2 (p&lt;0.0001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> RMSF in hospitalized patients has a high mortality rate in spite of early treatment in all age groups, without showing any predominance in gender. However, patients older than 20 years of age had a higher mortality rate than those younger than 20 years, without any predominance in gender.</p> Hiram J. Jaramillo-Ramírez, Jeremy J. Hernández-Ríos, Fátima M. Martínez-González, Luz A. Gutiérrez-Bañales, Eliot R. García-Valenzuela, J. Andrés Beltrán-López, Jorge L. Peterson, Flor M. Yocupicio, Rodolfo Ruíz-Luján Copyright (c) 2020 Hiram J. Jaramillo-Ramírez, Jeremy J. Hernández-Ríos, Fátima M. Martínez-González, Luz A. Gutiérrez-Bañales, Eliot R. García-Valenzuela, J. Andrés Beltrán-López, Jorge L. Peterson, Flor M. Yocupicio, Rodolfo Ruíz-Luján https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/459 Mon, 31 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Acute Liver Failure in Patients with Classic Heat Stroke http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/442 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Classic heat stroke is defined by a core temperature greater than 40° C, severe dehydration and neurological alterations. Patients with liver disease due to heat stroke have been described, mostly by exercise. Hepatic failure is defined as the presence of a coagulopathy accompanied by any degree of hepatic encephalopathy. The primary objective of the study lies in the fact that patients who developed acute liver failure during their hospital stay had a higher risk of mortality.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective, analytical study of patients admitted to the General Hospital of Mexicali who suffered from classic heat stroke from March 2006 through August 2010, and a second period from June 2018 to August 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fifty patients were recruited, the group included 48 (96%) male, with a total of 10 fatalities, representing 20%. INR greater than 1.5, AST and ALT levels were not related to an increased mortality rate.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Neither transaminase levels, nor liver failure, were related to a higher mortality rate in this cohort of patients with classic heat stroke.</p> Jeremy J. Hernández-Ríos, Fátima María Martínez-González, Luz A. Gutiérrez-Bañales, J. Andrés Beltrán-López, Hiram J. Jaramillo-Ramírez Copyright (c) 2020 Jeremy J. Hernández-Ríos, Fátima María Martínez-González, Luz A Gutiérrez-Bañales, J. Andrés Beltrán-López, Hiram J Jaramillo-Ramírez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/442 Mon, 31 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Pathology and Therapeutics of COVID-19: A Review http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/498 <p>COVID-19 pandemic has taken over the world. Spreading from its epicenter in a seafood market in Wuhan, China to more than 200 countries, it has caused alarming situations. The viral infection is caused by an RNA virus called SARS-CoV-2. Its genome resembles the SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV genome. COVID-19 cases were first reported in December 2019 in China, with infection causing a mild to severe respiratory disease. No antiviral drug for the infection has been shown to be effective, however many drugs are approved in the context of clinical trials. The review article will first present the structure of the SARS-CoV-2 and compare it to SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. The article will then highlight its effect on different organs. Finally, it will highlight the therapeutics which are in consideration and those which are being used.</p> Haleema Anwar, Qudsia Umaira Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Haleema Anwar, Qudsia Umaira Khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/498 Mon, 18 May 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Probiotics as Promising Immunomodulatory Agents to Prevent COVID-19 Infection: A Narrative Review http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/486 <p>After the outbreak in December 2019, Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has become a global health problem because of its rapid spread throughout the world. To date, there are no effective therapies to treat or prevent COVID-19 infection. Probiotic bacteria are widely used to prevent gastrointestinal infections by modulating intestinal microbiota. Therefore, this literature review focuses on the potential possessed by probiotic bacteria for the prevention of future COVID-19 infections. Information was extracted from PubMed and Google Scholar using the keywords: "COVID-19", "immunomodulator", "inflammation", and "probiotic" and synthesized into this narrative review. The results showed that probiotic bacteria have immunomodulatory activity that can increase immunity against pathogens by regulating the immune system through modulation of intestinal microbiota and interactions with the lymphatic system in the digestive tract. The ability of the immune system regulation by probiotic bacteria has the effect of increasing the body's defense mechanisms against pathogens that infect the respiratory tract. However, further evidence is still needed regarding the effect of probiotic immunomodulators in combating future COVID-19 infections.</p> Muhammad Luthfi Adnan, Miranti Dewi Pramaningtyas Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Luthfi Adnan, Miranti D. Dewi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/486 Fri, 08 May 2020 00:00:00 -0400 FKBP5 Gene Variants as Predictors for Antidepressant Response in Individuals with Major Depressive Disorder Who Have Experienced Childhood Trauma. A Systematic Review http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/437 <p>FKBP5 gene variants may predict antidepressant treatment response in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder. PubMed and Web of Science were searched systematically for articles studying individuals who had received a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and were given antidepressant treatment. Inclusion criteria were studies that researched FKBP5 and its variants and focused on antidepressant treatment response. Previous studies support a potential underlying epigenetic mechanism, demethylation at FKBP5 polymorphisms (rs1360780, rs3800373, rs9470080, and rs4713916) after experiencing childhood trauma, leading to increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis sensitivity and a propensity for the development of MDD. These polymorphisms informed the review, but additional polymorphisms (rs9380514, rs352428) were also considered. Studies conducted prior to 2008, reviews, meta-analyses, editorials, and non-research-based articles were excluded. Studies examined in this article suggest FKBP5 polymorphism rs4713916 and FKBP5 RNA levels may be associated with antidepressant response. Variants rs1360780, rs3800373, and rs9470080 were associated with both positive response and non-response or lack of remission. Variants rs9380514, rs352428, and rs936882 were associated with poor response to antidepressant treatment or non-remission. Further insights into the role FKBP5 plays in development and antidepressant treatment response may be aided by future studies focused on individuals who previously experienced childhood trauma and later developed MDD.</p> Natalie Wietfeldt, Andrew J. Boileau Copyright (c) 2020 Natalie Wietfeldt https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/437 Fri, 22 May 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Novel Blood Biomarkers for an Earlier Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Literature Review http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/452 <p>Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative condition associated with neurofibrillary tangles and cortical deposition of amyloid plaques. Clinical presentation of the disease involves manifestations such as memory loss, cognitive decline and dementia with some of the earliest reported deficits being episodic memory impairment and olfactory dysfunction. Current diagnostic approaches rely on autopsy characterization of gross brain pathology, or brain imaging of biomarkers late in the disease course. The aim of this literature review is to identify and compare novel blood-based biomarkers with the potential of making an earlier clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Utilizing such techniques may allow for earlier therapeutic intervention, reduction of disability and enhancement of patients’ quality of life. Literature review and analysis was performed by screening the PubMed database for relevant studies between July 1, 2014 and December 31, 2019. Sixteen studies were reviewed with biomarker candidates categorized under microRNAs (miRNAs), auto-antibodies, other blood-based proteins or circulating nucleic acids. Three biomarker candidates – serum neurofilament light chain, plasma β-secretase 1 activity and a panel of three miRNAs (miR-135a/193b/384) – reported statistically significant differences in testing between patients and controls, with high discriminative potential and high statistical power. In conclusion, certain blood biomarkers have shown promising results with high sensitivity and specificity, high discriminative potential for Alzheimer’s disease early in its progression, and statistically significant results in larger study samples. Utilization of such diagnostic biomarkers could increase the efficacy of making an earlier clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease.</p> Shiavax J. Rao, Andrew J. Boileau Copyright (c) 2020 Shiavax Rao, Andrew J. Boileau https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/452 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 -0400 ECG Artifact by a Spinal Cord Neurostimulator: A Case Report http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/614 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Neurostimulator devices produce electrical oscillations that may prevent accurate diagnosis of an ECG.</p> <p><strong>The Case:</strong> We present the case of a 68-year-old man who came to the emergency department with chest pain and a spinal cord neuromodulator device in situ to treat his polymyalgia rheumatica. A 12-lead ECG was obtained to determine the cause of the chest pain, and atrial fibrillation was wrongly diagnosed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This case reiterates the value of recognizing this uncommonly encountered ECG artifact to avoid unnecessary mistakes in interpretation of heart rhythms.</p> Shyla Gupta, Cathy Shaw, Sohaib Haseeb, Adrian Baranchuk Copyright (c) 2020 Shyla Gupta, Cathy Shaw, Sohaib Haseeb, Adrian Baranchuk https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/614 Tue, 18 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Clinical Course of a Covid-19 Patient with Gastrointestinal Symptoms- A Case Report http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/617 <p><strong>Background: </strong>COVID-19 most commonly presents with respiratory symptoms. However, it can involve the gastrointestinal tract causing symptoms like diarrhea and the resultant shedding of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in feces. This is due to the virus adhering to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors largely present in the gastrointestinal tract. This case report recommends routine stool Real-Time Reverse Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) testing for patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms.</p> <p><strong>The Case: </strong>A healthy 36-year-old male healthcare worker in New York who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection through rRT-PCR of the nasopharyngeal swab. After 7 days of convalescence, he recovered from influenza like symptoms after which he predominantly developed diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and extreme fatigue. Cough was the only lower respiratory symptom during the 3rd week of the clinical course. Anosmia or ageusia preceding the onset of respiratory symptoms was also reported. Due to the outbreak of the pandemic and New York being the epicenter at the time, the patient was recommended to self-isolate with supportive management through antipyretics and electrolyte replacement.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This case highlights a SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive patient with predominant gastrointestinal symptoms. The reports regarding virus shedding in feces suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could be transmitted via fecal-oral route and thus routine stool rRT-PCR testing can aid in transmission-based precautions. Furthermore, reports of viral ribonucleic acid present in the stool, suggests direct infectivity of the virus on the intestinal tract. Therefore, screening in patients with only gastrointestinal symptoms can potentially help to contain the virus spread.</p> Sidra Agarwal, Hemanshi Mistry Copyright (c) 2020 Sidra Agarwal, Hemanshi Mistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/617 Mon, 31 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Medical Volunteerism in Times of COVID-19: Burden or Relief? http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/550 Dimitris Potolidis Copyright (c) 2020 Dimitris Potolidis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/550 Fri, 08 May 2020 00:00:00 -0400 The Role of Telemedicine on Ecuador During the COVID-19 Crisis: A Perspective from a Volunteer Physician http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/547 <p>Ecuador is one of the most affected countries of COVID-19 in Latin American. The government invited physicians to become a volunteer to attend call center and practice telemedicine in order to relief an oversaturated health system. Due lack of availability and digital illiteracy the government implement just standard calls. The difficulties that can be faced are secondary to establishing the severity of a patient only with subjective measures and to achieving effective coordination of telemedicine with public health systems. The role played by the doctor during this crisis is fundamental from the educational, preventive and psychological point of view.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bryan Nicolalde Copyright (c) 2020 Bryan Nicolalde https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/547 Fri, 08 May 2020 00:00:00 -0400 A Surgical Resident’s Perspective about COVID-19 Pandemic: Unique Experience and Lessons Learnt http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/546 <p><strong>Discussion Points.</strong></p> <ol> <li>Experience of a surgical trainee to manage COVID-19 patients along with surgical emergencies.</li> <li>In spite of managing high-risk seropositive cases during non-COVID-19 times with impunity, there is always a sense of apprehension during operation in this critical time.</li> <li>E-learning is promoted presently with online seminars and webinars on managing COVID-19 and other non-COVID-19 diseases, which is overall a new experience during this critical time.</li> <li>Every nation and medical university needs to adequately increase the infrastructure to tackle the similar situation and also train their future generation of health care providers more broadly at least to manage critically ill patients during epidemics, irrespective of subspecialties.</li> </ol> <ol start="5"> <li>The global community should unite to fight against this invisible enemy of humanity.</li> </ol> Madhuri Chaudary, Prakash Kumar Sasmal Copyright (c) 2020 Madhuri Chaudary, Prakash Kumar Sasmal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/546 Mon, 11 May 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Stuck in Limbo: Coping with an Unusual Circumstance as an International Medical Graduate from India http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/507 <p>During the COVID-19 pandemic, medical students and graduates applying for higher education abroad face stress and anxiety. With countries under lockdown, the situation has left many wondering how they can use their time fruitfully. In this experience, I illustrate the methods I have used to gain maximum productivity in this period.</p> Sanjana Chetana Shanmukhappa Copyright (c) 2020 Sanjana Chetana Shanmukhappa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/507 Fri, 15 May 2020 00:00:00 -0400 COVID-19 Pandemic: Medical and Pharmacy Education in Nigeria http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/559 Yusuff Adebayo Adebisi, Progress Agboola, Melody Okereke Copyright (c) 2020 Yusuff Adebayo Adebisi, Progress Agboola, Melody Okereke https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/559 Mon, 18 May 2020 00:00:00 -0400 A Positive Attitude to Negate a False Positive Test Result: An Intern’s Experience with COVID-19 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/526 <p>I recount my experience as an intern in the Democratic Republic of Congo during the COVID-19 pandemic. I received a patient who was presumed to have COVID and was isolated. The first test result was a false positive, so I was discharged. Although I was not infected by COVID-19, I was adversely affected by it. The anxiety of waiting for test results and isolation are both mentally challenging. Also, COVID-related stigmatization is a serious complication of the disease. Targeted psychological interventions should prevent all three.</p> Vanessa N. Youmbi Copyright (c) 2020 Vanessa N. Youmbi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/526 Tue, 19 May 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Balancing Our Identities as Medical Students and Global Citizens in the Wake of COVID-19 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/500 <p>As medical students, we felt the burden of COVID-19 in two distinct waves. The first wave brought with it a loss of opportunity and the immense sadness that came with the understanding that we would move forth without ever compensating for such experiences. As clerkships and licensing exams were slowly canceled, we struggled to find ways to fill our days and continue to remain strong postgraduate candidates. It was not long before our personal losses became insignificant in the face of the global trajectory COVID-19 took and the burden of the pandemic impinged on our vulnerabilities. Suddenly, we were facing a significant loss of life and the fear of ill-health was ever-present. This challenged our identity as medical students and forced us to identify as global citizens who were also susceptible to the threat of the pandemic. It also forced us to uphold our health and well-being just as we had pledged to hold the health and well-being of others and to include ourselves in our commitment to a lifetime of service.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ramesha Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Ramesha Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/500 Fri, 22 May 2020 00:00:00 -0400 To Help or Not to Help: A First Year Canadian Medical Student’s Dilemma During the COVID-19 Pandemic http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/538 <p>I am a first-year medical student, and this is a commentary, highlighting some of the dilemmas and challenges encountered by a first-year medical student during these unprecedented times of the COVID-19 crisis. With the declaration of COVID-19 as a public health emergency, and medical students having to discontinue their clinical duties, I felt apprehensive. As if being restricted from serving the communities for whom I took an oath of service, even before I could start. Talking with my mentors and through self-reflection, I found solace in diverting my energy in supporting the frontline staff from the bleachers. This article would provide medical students with an opportunity to think critically during these times, stir conversation amongst medical students, and allow them to recognize how to reconcile with so much uncertainty about the future.</p> Janhavi Patel Copyright (c) 2020 Janhavi Patel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/538 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 -0400 The Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic on US Medical Students in their Clinical Years http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/508 Raed Qarajeh, Farah Tahboub, Nikita Rafie, Nurry Pirani, Mary Anne Jackson, C. Douglas Cochran Copyright (c) 2020 Raed Qarajeh, Farah Tahboub, Nikita Rafie, Nurry Pirani, Mary Anne Jackson, C. Douglas Cochran https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/508 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Clinical Skills Abilities Development During COVID-19 Pandemic in Mexico City http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/600 <p><span lang="EN-US">Medical formation includes the development of several skills including clinical ones. Medical students have to learn how to build a healthy doctor – patient relationship in order to provide the best diagnosis, treatment and quality of attention. COVID-19 provide a new challenge for all students in Mexico to learn skills that traditionally have been learned in person and not through a computer.</span></p> Lourdes Adriana Medina-Gaona Copyright (c) 2020 Lourdes Adriana Medina-Gaona https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/600 Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 -0400 COVID-19 and Clinical Rotations in the Democratic Republic of Congo http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/539 <p>Two of the authors are final year medical students currently rotating at the Monkolé Mother and Infant Hospital Center, Democratic Republic of Congo. They recount their experience as interns before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. They detail the national and hospital response to COVID-19 and their effects on the general population and healthcare personnel. They go on to describe how they are coping while they are at home.</p> Olga Djoutsop Mbougo, Vanessa Youmbi Nono, Ulrick S. Kanmounye Copyright (c) 2020 Olga Djoutsop Mbougo, Vanessa Youmbi Nono, Ulrick Sidney Kanmounye https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/539 Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0400 NHS Nightingale North West: A Medical Student on the Front Lines http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/640 <p>Seemingly overnight, on the 12<sup>th</sup> of March 2020, healthcare systems the world over changed as the World Health Organisation deemed COVID-19 a worldwide pandemic. I was moved directly into the fourth year of my medical studies without examination, and applied to work in one of the few field hospitals set up across the United Kingdom, designed to handle to worst case scenario of COVID-19. Here I tended to the most basic needs of patients as a care support worker and witness first hand the relentlessness of this awful disease.&nbsp; Being able to help and work in a role I was not familiar with has given me great insight into the needs of patient’s whether they are going home or in their final days of life.&nbsp; As the pandemic cools down and the incidence curve flattens, we have all been put on standby, hopefully not to be required again.</p> Lewis Holt Copyright (c) 2020 Lewis Holt https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/640 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Experiences of a London Medical Student in the COVID-19 Pandemic http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/576 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has changed life as we know it. As a senior medical student in London, I offer my perspective on how the virus has affected my education and the potential impact on the education of future medical students. I cover topics including videoconferencing replacing clinical placements, the disadvantages of online learning and an unprecedent shift to online, open book examinations.</p> Alin-Ioan Suseanu Copyright (c) 2020 Alin-Ioan Suseanu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/576 Fri, 10 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0400 South Africa and COVID-19: A Medical Student Perspective http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/591 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world in an unprecedented manner. South Africans waited anxiously for the disease to enter the country. I recount my experience of the first COVID-19 case and the impact it has had on the academic year.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sahil Maharaj Copyright (c) 2020 Sahil Maharaj https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/591 Tue, 14 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Utilizing Health Education and Promotion to Minimize the Impact of COVID-19 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/618 Nidhi Thomas Copyright (c) 2020 Nidhi Thomas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/618 Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Medical Students during COVID-19 Pandemic: Lessons Learned from Response Teams in Greece http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/603 Nikolaos Vlachopoulos, Emmanouil Smyrnakis, Panagiotis Stachteas, Maria Exindari, Georgia Gioula, Anna Papa Copyright (c) 2020 Nikolaos Vlachopoulos, Emmanouil Smyrnakis, Panagiotis Stachteas, Maria Exindari, Georgia Gioula, Anna Papa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/603 Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0400 The Outbreak of the Century: A Chronicle Experience by a Medical Intern http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/619 Chinmay Divyadarshi Kar, Dipti Mohapatra Copyright (c) 2020 Chinmay Divyadarshi Kar, Dipti Mohapatra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/619 Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Adapting to COVID-19: New Orleans Medical Students Respond http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/583 Jacob F. Boudreaux Copyright (c) 2020 Jacob F. Boudreaux https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/583 Mon, 17 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Fighting COVID-19: What’s in a Name? http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/645 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">While the COVID-19 virus has infected over 3 million people in the United States of America, Asian Americans face unique unfair treatment due to COVID-19. In America, many anti-Asian incidents have been reported, and the FBI warns of increased hate crimes to Asian Americans due to COVID-19. Americans and high-level politicians use inappropriate names, such as “Chinese Virus,” for the COVID-19 virus, which fuels racism and xenophobia. In this Experience piece, we discuss the harm of referring to the COVID-19 virus based on the geographic location where it was first identified. </span></p> Thomas Kun Pak, Aline Sandouk, Phuong Le Copyright (c) 2020 Thomas Kun Pak, Aline Sandouk, Phuong Le https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/645 Wed, 26 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Online Final Medical School Exam in a Low-Income Country During COVID-19 Pandemic http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/635 Caroline Vimbainashe Gona Copyright (c) 2020 Caroline Vimbainashe Gona https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://ijms.info/IJMS/article/view/635 Fri, 28 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400