Frequency and Correlation of Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio with Fasting Glycemia and Blood Pressure in High School Students from Mexico

  • Lourdes Adriana Medina-Gaona Student of the third semester of the career in Medicine Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Mexico City Campus, Mexico
  • Nallely Enríquez-Sánchez Student of the third semester of the career in Biotechnology Engineering Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Mexico City Campus, Mexico.
  • Carla Elizabeth Mejía- Ramírez Student of the third semester of the career in Biomedical Engineering Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Mexico City Campus, Mexico.
  • Nathalia de Jesús Orueta-Mondragón Languages student, Centro Universitario Anglo Americano, Cuernavaca Morelos, Mexico.
  • Heriberto Medina-Franco MD, Specialist in Oncological Surgery, Ascribed Surgeon of the Surgery Department, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán” Mexico City, Mexico.
  • Yareri Sandoval-Morales Nutritionist, Student of the third semester of the Masters in Clinical Nutrition Escuela de Dietética y Nutrición del Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado Mexico City, Mexico.
  • Tanya Plett-Torres Pharmaceutical Biological Chemist, MSc and PhD (Health Sciences), Head of teaching of the MD/PhD program, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria Mexico City, Mexico.
Keywords: Body Mass Index, Waist-Hip Ratio, Blood Glucose, Blood Pressure, Students


Background: Overweight/obesity is a global public health problem in adolescents. Its frequency is increasing as similar to diabetes, hypertension, health expenses, and poor quality of life. Thus, detecting overweight/obesity early in life promises a positive impact on the world’s health.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, differences were explored between glycemia and blood pressure according to BMI, WHR, age, sex, number of daily meals and family history of chronic diseases in high school students from Mexico City.

Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the participants (115) was 26% and 7%, respectively. Fasting glycemia (mg/dL) was higher in students aged ≤17 vs. ≥18 (91.45±7.96 vs 87.59±10.06, p=0.038). All hyperglycemic students and with android adipose distribution were women. Compared to the other participants, overweight students had higher systolic (107.24±12.31 vs 115.73±15.28, p=0.003) and diastolic (70.99±10.93 vs 76.27±13.02, p=0.033) mean values (mmHg). Systolic values were higher in obesity (108.77±13.03 vs 118.63±18.38, p=0.048). Men had a higher frequency of systolic (32%, p=0.001) and diastolic (37%, p=0.023) prehypertension/hypertension than women (8% and 17%, respectively). Systolic prehypertension/hypertension was common in overweight (47% vs 53%, p=0.008). Skipping meals was common in students with family history of hypertension (13% vs 87%, p=0.005).

Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight was higher and of obesity was lower than the one reported in ENSANUT 2016 (22.4% and 13.9%, respectively). Sex differences in blood glucose and pressure were obtained: men had higher blood pressures and women with abdominal fat had higher fasting glycemia. Systolic blood pressure was higher in overweight and obesity.

Author Biography

Lourdes Adriana Medina-Gaona, Student of the third semester of the career in Medicine Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Mexico City Campus, Mexico

Lourdes Adriana Medina Gaona is currently a third-year medical student of Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) in Mexico City of a total of seven-year program. She is also a recipient of Honorific Mention given by ITESM in 2016.


Tsujimoto T, Kajio H, Sugiyama T. Obesity, diabetes, and length of time in the United States: Analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(35): e4578.

Collaborators GBDO, Afshin A, Forouzanfar MH, Reitsma MB, Sur P, Estep K, et al. Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years. N Engl J Med. 2017; 377(1): 13-27.

Olaiz-Fernandez G, Rivera-Dommarco J, Shamah-Levy T, Rojas R, Villalpando-Hernandez S, Hernandez-Avila M, et al. Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutricion 2006. 1st ed. Cuernavaca, Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica; 2006. 132 p.

Gutierrez J, Rivera-Dommarco J, Shamah-Levy T, Villalpando-Hernandez S, Franco A, Cuevas-Nasu L, et al. [ENSANUT 2012: Analysis of its main results]. 1st ed. Cuernavaca, Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica; 2012. 200 p.

Hernandez-Avila M, Rivera Dommarco J, Shamah-Levy T, Cuevas-Nasu L, Gomez-Acosta L, Gaona-Pineda E, et al. Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutricion de Medio Camino 2016. Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica; 2016.

Kelly RK, Magnussen CG, Sabin MA, Cheung M, Juonala M. Development of hypertension in overweight adolescents: a review. Adolesc Health Med Ther. 2015; 6: 171-87.

Sinha R, Fisch G, Teague B, Tamborlane WV, Banyas B, Allen K, et al. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among children and adolescents with marked obesity. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346(11): 802-10.

Velasco-Martínez RM, Jiménez-Cruz A, Higuera Domínguez F, Domínguez de la Piedra E, Bacardí-Gascón M. [Obesity and insulin resistance among adolescents from Chiapas]. Nutr Hosp. 2009; 24(2): 187-92.

Eriksson JG, Osmond C, Kajantie E, Forsén TJ, Barker DJ. Patterns of growth among children who later develop type 2 diabetes or its risk factors. Diabetologia. 2006; 49(12): 2853-8.

Nkeh-Chungag BN, Mxhosa TH, Mgoduka PN. Association of waist and hip circumferences with the presence of hypertension and pre-hypertension in young South African adults. Afr Health Sci. 2015; 15(3): 908-16.

Russo C, Sera F, Jin Z, Palmieri V, Homma S, Rundek T, et al. Abdominal adiposity, general obesity, and subclinical systolic dysfunction in the elderly: A population-based cohort study. Eur J Heart Fail. 2016; 18(5): 537-44.

Selvaraj S, Martinez EE, Aguilar FG, Kim KY, Peng J, Sha J, et al. Association of Central Adiposity With Adverse Cardiac Mechanics: Findings From the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network Study. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016; 9(6).

Urquidez Romero R, Murguía Romero M, Esparza Romero J, Díaz Torres BA, Rodríguez Tadeo A, Medrano Donlucas G, et al. Abdominal obesity is strongly associated to blood pressure in young Mexicans. Nutr Hosp. 2017;34(2):357-62.

Daniels SR, Morrison JA, Sprecher DL, Khoury P, Kimball TR. Association of body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Circulation. 1999; 99(4): 541-5.

Salcedo-Rocha AL, de Alba JE, Contreras-Marmolejo M. [Classifying Mexican adolescents' high blood pressure, associated factors and importance]. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota). 2010; 12(4): 612-22.

Lakshman R, Elks CE, Ong KK. Childhood obesity. Circulation. 2012; 126(14): 1770-9.

Kong AS, Sussman AL, Yahne C, Skipper BJ, Burge MR, Davis SM. School-based health center intervention improves body mass index in overweight and obese adolescents. J Obes. 2013; 2013: 575016.

Hawkes C, Smith TG, Jewell J, Wardle J, Hammond RA, Friel S, et al. Smart food policies for obesity prevention. Lancet. 2015; 385(9985): 2410-21.

Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 2000; 894: i-xii, 1-253.

Kaplan A, Jack R, Opheim K, Tiovola B, Lyon A. Clinical Chemistry: Interpretation and Techniques. 3rd ed. Malvern, PA: Williams & Wilkins; 1995. 514 p.

Anyaegbu EI, Dharnidharka VR. Hypertension in the teenager. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2014; 61(1): 131-51.

Althoff T, Sosic R, Hicks JL, King AC, Delp SL, Leskovec J. Large-scale physical activity data reveal worldwide activity inequality. Nature. 2017; 547(7663): 336-9.

Pendergast FJ, Livingstone KM, Worsley A, McNaughton SA. Correlates of meal skipping in young adults: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016; 13(1): 125.

St-Onge MP, Ard J, Baskin ML, Chiuve SE, Johnson HM, Kris-Etherton P, et al. Meal Timing and Frequency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017; 135(9): e96-e121.

Smith KJ, Gall SL, McNaughton SA, Blizzard L, Dwyer T, Venn AJ. Skipping breakfast: longitudinal associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 92(6): 1316-25.

Rodrigues P, Pereira R, Sebastião Santana A, Gama A, Carvalhal I, Nogueira H, et al. Irregular breakfast habits are associated with children’s increased adiposity and children’s and parents’ lifestyle related behaviors: a population-based crosssectional study. Nutrire. 2016;41(8):1-10.

Kelishadi R, Mozafarian N, Qorbani M, Motlagh ME, Safiri S, Ardalan G, et al. Is snack consumption associated with meal skipping in children and adolescents? The CASPIAN-IV study. Eat Weight Disord. 2017; 22(2): 321-8.

Ma Y, Bertone ER, Stanek EJ, Reed GW, Hebert JR, Cohen NL, et al. Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population. Am J Epidemiol. 2003; 158(1): 85-92.

Kobayashi F, Ogata H, Omi N, Nagasaka S, Yamaguchi S, Hibi M, et al. Effect of breakfast skipping on diurnal variation of energy metabolism and blood glucose. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2014; 8(3): e201-98.

Eloranta AM, Lindi V, Schwab U, Kiiskinen S, Venalainen T, Lakka HM, et al. Dietary factors associated with metabolic risk score in Finnish children aged 6-8 years: the PANIC study. Eur J Nutr. 2014; 53(6): 1431-9.

Wennberg M, Gustafsson PE, Wennberg P, Hammarstrom A. Irregular eating of meals in adolescence and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood: results from a 27-year prospective cohort. Public Health Nutr. 2016; 19(4): 667-73.

Freedman DS, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. The relation of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics. 1999; 103(6 Pt 1): 1175-82.

Assadi F. Prehypertension: a warning sign of future cardiovascular risk. Int J Prev Med. 2014; 5(Suppl 1): S4-9.

Abdelaal M, le Roux CW, Docherty NG. Morbidity and mortality associated with obesity. Ann Transl Med. 2017; 5(7): 161.

Debnath S. BMI is a Better Indicator of Cardiac Risk Factors, as against Elevated Blood Pressure in Apparently Healthy Female Adolescents and Young Adult Students: Results From a Cross-Sectional Study in Tripura. Indian J Community Med. 2016; 41(4): 292-8.

Avila JL FC, Tuirán R. [Indices de marginación 2000]. First ed. Mexico: Consejo Nacional de Población; 2001. 49 p.

Dinsa GD, Goryakin Y, Fumagalli E, Suhrcke M. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2012; 13(11): 1067-79.

Ortiz-Hernández L, Pérez-Salgado D, Tamez-González S. [Socioeconomic inequality and health in Mexico]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2015; 53(3): 336-47.

Frieden TR. A framework for public health action: the health impact pyramid. Am J Public Health. 2010; 100(4): 590-5.

Cahill LE, Chiuve SE, Mekary RA, Jensen MK, Flint AJ, Hu FB, et al. Prospective Study of Breakfast Eating and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in a Cohort of Male US Health Professionals Clinical Perspective. Circulation. 2013; 128(4): 337-43.

World Health Organization: Child growth standards. Accessed 15 May 2018.

Pontaza, D: [Breakfast as "king" can help you lose weight]. (2018). Accessed 18 May 2018.

Stone TW, McPherson M, Darlington LG. Obesity and Cancer: Existing and New Hypotheses for a Causal Connection. EBioMedicine. 2018.

Prendergast GC, Metz R, Muller AJ. Towards a genetic definition of cancer-associated inflammation: role of the IDO pathway. The American journal of pathology. 2010;176(5):2082-7.

Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. cell. 2011;144(5):646-74.

Zhang Yx, Wang Sr. Distribution of subcutaneous fat and the relationship with blood pressure in obese children and adolescents in Shandong, China. Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology. 2015;29(2):156-61.

Wang Y, Beydoun MA. The obesity epidemic in the United States—gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiologic reviews. 2007;29(1):6-28.

Stamatakis E, Wardle J, Cole TJ. Childhood obesity and overweight prevalence trends in England: evidence for growing socioeconomic disparities. International journal of obesity. 2010;34(1):41.

Hernández-Cordero S, Cuevas-Nasu L, Morales-Ruán M, Humarán IM-G, Ávila-Arcos M, Rivera-Dommarco J. Overweight and obesity in Mexican children and adolescents during the last 25 years. Nutrition & diabetes. 2017;7(2):e247.

How to Cite
Medina-Gaona, L., Enríquez-Sánchez, N., Mejía- Ramírez, C., de Jesús Orueta-Mondragón, N., Medina-Franco, H., Sandoval-Morales, Y., & Plett-Torres, T. (2018). Frequency and Correlation of Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio with Fasting Glycemia and Blood Pressure in High School Students from Mexico. International Journal of Medical Students, 6(2), 38-46. Retrieved from
Original Article