Risk to Develop Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus according to FINDRISC tool in Guatemalan Physicians aged 40-60 years
Background: In Latin America 22.4 million people has abnormal tolerance to insulin, these ones could turn into diabetics if they do not change their lifestyles. Added to this, there are 15 million who present Diabetes Mellitus and this amount will increase to 20 million in 10 years. This epidemic behavior is caused by many factors in which stand out lifestyles, the population aging, and lack of prevention programs. Since 1994, physicians in Guatemala have demonstrated to have inadequate lifestyles in different researches, standing out sedentarism, overweight and obesity, and hypercaloric diets. Objective: To evaluate the risk of developing type 2 Diabetes Mellitus using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) in Guatemalan doctors of three medical institutions in the months of June and July 2016. Methods: Cross-sectional study, where 176 doctors were interviewed using the FINDRISC. Participant’s body mass index and abdominal circumference were measured. Results: Mean age was 50 years, 63% (110) male; 55% (96) were sedentary, more than three quarters consumed fruits and vegetables daily, 22% (38) were hypertensive, 10% (17) had a history of impaired glucose and 61% family history of diabetes (108); 47% (82) were overweight and 31% (54) had some degree of obesity. Central obesity was present in 63% (111). There was a statistically significant relationship between age and risk of type 2 diabetes (OR: 3.4 p: 0.001) as well as a relationship between physical activity and abdominal circumference (OR: 2.84, p: 0.001). Out of the total population, 80% (141) of doctors were in some degree of risk, from these, 53% with slightly elevated, 29% moderate, 16% with high and 2% very high risk. Conclusions: Eight out of ten doctors studied were at risk of developing type 2 diabetes over a period of ten years. There is a relationship between: age and risk of disease, as well as between physical activity and abdominal circumference.
2. Hernández Ávila M, Gutiérrez JP, Reynoso Noverón N [Diabetes mellitus in Mexico: The state of the epidemic]. Salud Pública Mex. 2013; 55(2):129-36. esp
3. Olaiz Fernández G, Rojas R, Aguilar Salinas CA, Rauda J, Villalpando S. [Dia¬betes mellitus in Mexican adults: Results of the 2000 National Health Survey]. Salud Pública Mex. 2007; 49(3):331-37. esp
4. Moreira JP. [Diabetes Mellitus in Guatemala: Epidemiological Aspects]. Rev Guatem Cardiol. 2014; 24 Maz(1):34-38. esp
5. Zeceña DW. [Smoking, alcoholism, obesity and physical condition in resi¬dent physicians: Comparative study on admission and discharge of Post-de¬gree specialties at Hospital Roosevelt, Hospital San Juan de Dios and Insti¬tuto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social]. [thesis of medical doctor degree]. Guatemala: Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas; 1994. esp
6. López Castillo MR. [Mortality in the Guatemalan Medical Association: data collection from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2009. Rev Col Médicos y Cir Guatemala. 2009;4(1):33-5. esp
7. Aguilar Barojas S. [Formulas for the calculation of the sample in health research]. Salud en Tabasco. 2005; 11(1-2):333-338. esp
8. Lindstrom J, Tuomilehto J. The diabetes Risk Score: A practical tool to pre¬dict type 2 diabetes risk. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26 (3):725-731.
9. Soriguer F, Valdés S, Tapia MJ, Esteva I, Ruiz de Adana MS, Almaraz MC, et al. [FINDRISC validation for predicting the risk of type 2 diabetes in a population in southern Spain: Estudio Pizarra]. Med Clin. 2012 Abr; 138 (9): 371-376. esp
10. Franciosi M, De Berardis G, Rossi MCE, Sacco M, Belfiglio M, Pellegrini F, et al. Use of the diabetes Risk Score for Opportunistic Screening of Undiagno¬sed diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: The IGLOO (Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Long-Term Outcomes Observational) study. diabetes Care. 2005 May; 28 (5): 1187-1194.
11. Rathmann W, Martin S, Haastert B, Icks A, Holle R, Lowel H, et al. Perfor¬mance of Screening Questionnaires and Risk Scores for Undiagnosed diabe¬tes: The KORA survey 2000. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Feb; 165: 463-441.
12. Brito Núñez NJ, Brito Núñez JD, Ruiz-Rendón CM. [Risk of diabetes in a ru¬ral community of Sotillo municipality. Monagas State]. Venezuela. Rev Venez Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Oct; 12(3):167-176. esp
13. Arnold Rodríguez M, Arnold Domínguez Y, Alfonso Hernández Y, Villar Gue¬rra C, González Calero TM. [Research and prevention of type 2 diabetes melli¬tus in at-risk population]. Rev Cubana Hig Epidemiol. 2012; 50(3):380-391. esp
14. Ochoa Orozco SA, Moreno Gutiérrez PA, Echeverri Cataño LF, Orozco Esco¬bar A, Mondragón Cardona A, Villegas Rojas Soraya. [Cardiovascular risk and diabetes in the prison population of Pereira, Colombia, 2010]. Revista Médica Risaralda. 2012 Dic; 18(2):129-133. esp
15. Palacios-Rodríguez RG, Paulín-Villalpando P, López-Carmona JM, Vale¬rio-Acosta M, Cabrera-Gaytán DA. [Metabolic syndrome in health personnel of a family medicine unit]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2010;48(3):297-302. esp
16. Guzmán Melgar I. [Current status of cardiovascular risk factors in general population in Guatemala]. Rev Guatem Cardiol. 2014 Mar;24(1):3-8. esp
17. Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson J G, Valle T T, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Pa¬rikka P, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2001 May; 344 (18): 1343-1350.
18. Valdés Ramos I E, Bencosme Rodríguez N. [Frequency of arterial hyperten¬sion and its relationship with some clinical variables in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus]. Rev Cuba Endocrinol. 2009; 20(3):77-88. esp
19. Vicente Sánchez B, Vicente Peña E, Altuna Delgado A, Costa Cruz M. [Iden¬tification of individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes]. Rev Finlay. 2015; 5(3):22-27. esp
20. Cornejo Guerra JA. [Diabetes Eradication in Guatemala: A Possible Dream]. Rev Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud. 2015;2(1):75-83. esp
21. Cuba J, Ramírez T, Olivares B, Bernui I, Estrada E. [Lifestyles and their relation with excess weight, in the medical residents of a national hospital]. An Fac med. 2011;72(3):205-10. esp
22. Moreno González MI. [Waist Circumference: An Important and Useful Me¬asurement of Cardiometabolic Risk]. Rev Chil Cardiol. 2010;29(1):85-7. esp
23. Aráuz-Hernández AG, Guzmán-Padilla S, Roselló-Araya M. [Abdominal cir¬cumference as an indicator of cardiovascular disease risk]. Acta méd costa¬rric. 2013 Jul-Sep;55(3):122-7. esp
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to email@example.com