Clinical Utility and Alterations in Bacterial Flora in Fecal Microbiome Transplantation
Dysbiotic states of gut ecology can be altered directly by transplantation of fecal preparation from healthy donors to patients with therapeutic intent. This paper assesses this fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in two respects: (1) the bacterial shifts in patient microbiomes with FMT and (2) clinical outcomes and variables of FMT. The PubMed database was searched using the MeSH terms “Feces/microbiology,” “Microbiota,” and “Transplantation.” Thirteen papers found examined clinical outcomes and variables of FMT, and eight assessed metagenomic data and bacterial composition in the peri-FMT period. FMT was reported to have high cure rates in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), generally increased levels of members of the phyla Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes, and decreased levels of members of Proteobacteria. Therapeutic FMT alters bacterial composition from a dysbiotic state pre-FMT to a healthy commensal state post-FMT in CDI patients, but further studies are necessary to understand its role in the treatment of other diseases
2. Song Y, Garg S, Girotra M, Maddox C, von Rosenvinge EC, Dutta A, et al. Microbiota dynamics in patients treated with fecal microbiota transplanta¬tion for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(11):e81330.
3. Vrieze A, van Nood E, Holleman F, Salojärvi J, Kootte RS, Bartelsman JF, et al. Transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2012 Oct;143(4):913–6.e7.
4. Kump PK, Gröchenig HP, Lackner S, Trajanoski S, Reicht G, Hoffmann KM, et al. Alteration of intestinal dysbiosis by fecal microbiota transplantation does not induce remission in patients with chronic active ulcerative colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2155–65.
5. Colman RJ, Rubin DT. Fecal microbiota transplantation as therapy for in¬flammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Crohns Colitis. 2014 Dec;8(12):1569–81.
6. Borody TJ, Campbell J, Torres M. Reversal of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) [abstract]. Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106:S352.
7. Borody TJ, Nowak A, Torres M, Campbell J, Finlayson S, Leis S. Bacterio¬therapy in chronic fatigue syndrome: a retrospective review [abstract]. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107 (Suppl 1):S591–S592. (A1481).
8. Anathaswamy A. Fecal transplant eases symptoms of Parkinson’s. New Sci 2011;2796:8–9.
9. Borody TJ, Leis S, Campbell J. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in multiple sclerosis (MS) [abstract]. Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106:S352.
10. Youngster I, Russell GH, Pindar C, Ziv-Baran T, Sauk J, Hohmann EL. Oral, capsulized, frozen fecal microbiota transplantation for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection. JAMA. 2014 Nov 5;312(17):1772–8.
11. Seekatz AM, Aas J, Gessert CE, Rubin TA, Saman DM, Bakken JS, et al. Recovery of the gut microbiome following fecal microbiota transplantation. MBio. 2014;5(3):e00893–00814.
12. Fuentes S, van Nood E, Tims S, Heikamp-de Jong I, ter Braak CJ, Keller JJ, et al. Reset of a critically disturbed microbial ecosystem: faecal transplant in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. ISME J. 2014 Aug;8(8):1621–33.
13. Kelly CR, Ihunnah C, Fischer M, Khoruts A, Surawicz C, Afzali A, et al. Fecal microbiota transplant for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in immunocompromised patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jul;109(7):1065–71.
14. Gough E, Shaikh H, Manges AR. Systematic review of intestinal microbiota transplantation (fecal bacteriotherapy) for recurrent Clostridium difficile in¬fection. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Nov;53(10):994–1002.
15. van Nood E, Vrieze A, Nieuwdorp M, Fuentes S, Zoetendal EG, de Vos WM, et al. Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 31;368(5):407–15.
16. Brandt LJ, Aroniadis OC, Mellow M, Kanatzar A, Kelly C, Park T, et al. Long-term follow-up of colonoscopic fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jul;107(7):1079–87.
17. Dutta SK, Girotra M, Garg S, Dutta A, von Rosenvinge EC, Maddox C, et al. Efficacy of combined jejunal and colonic fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Sep;12(9):1572–6.
18. Youngster I, Sauk J, Pindar C, Wilson RG, Kaplan JL, Smith MB, et al. Fecal microbiota transplant for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection using a frozen inoculum from unrelated donors: a randomized, open-label, contro¬lled pilot study. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jun;58(11):1515–22.
19. Russell GH, Kaplan JL, Youngster I, Baril-Dore M, Schindelar L, Hohmann E, et al. Fecal transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in children with and without inflammatory bowel disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 May;58(5):588–92.
20. Moayyedi P, Surette MG, Kim PT, Libertucci J, Wolfe M, Onischi C, et al. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Induces Remission in Patients With Active Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Controlled Trial. Gastroenterology. 2015 Jul;149(1):102–9.e6.
21. Rossen NG, Fuentes S, van der Spek MJ, Tijssen JG, Hartman JH, Duflou A, et al. Findings From a Randomized Controlled Trial of Fecal Trans¬plantation for Patients With Ulcerative Colitis. Gastroenterology. 2015 Jul;149(1):110–8.
22. Kunde S, Pham A, Bonczyk S, Crumb T, Duba M, Conrad H Jr, et al. Safe¬ty, tolerability, and clinical response after fecal transplantation in children and young adults with ulcerative colitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 Jun;56(6):597–601.
23. Suskind DL, Singh N, Nielson H, Wahbeh G. Fecal microbial transplant via nasogastric tube for active pediatric ulcerative colitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015 Jan;60(1):27–9.
24. Angelberger S, Reinisch W, Makristathis A, Lichtenberger C, Dejaco C, Pa¬pay P, et al. Temporal bacterial community dynamics vary among ulcerative colitis patients after fecal microbiota transplantation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Oct;108(10):1620–30.
25. Shankar V, Hamilton MJ, Khoruts A, Kilburn A, Unno T, Paliy O, et al. Species and genus level resolution analysis of gut microbiota in Clostridium difficile patients following fecal microbiota transplantation. Microbiome. 2014;2:13.
26. Hamilton MJ, Weingarden AR, Unno T, Khoruts A, Sadowsky MJ. High-throu¬ghput DNA sequence analysis reveals stable engraftment of gut microbiota following transplantation of previously frozen fecal bacteria. Gut Microbes. 2013 Apr;4(2):125–35.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to email@example.com
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org