Double Inlet Left Ventricle with Eisenmenger Syndrome in an Adult – A Case Report
Background: Patient diagnosed with double inlet left ventricle (prevalent in 5 – 10 in 100,000 newborns) complicated with Eisenmenger syndrome had a median survival age of 14 years without corrective surgery. Congenital heart disease such as this is usually treated by multiple surgeries during early childhood. A surgically uncorrected case in adults is not of common occurrence. Further, generalized itching after coming in contact with water (aquagenic pruritis) presented an interesting conundrum to treat. Case: A 29-year-old patient in India presented at a primary health care center with a history of difficulty breathing and discoloration of extremities since birth. He also gave a history of itching which commonly occurred after taking bath, hemoptysis and history of turning blue in color after birth. Patient had received no treatment besides regular phlebotomies. On examination, there was grade IV clubbing and conjunctival congestion. Cardiovascular examination revealed an enlarged heart, heaving apex beat and a pan-systolic murmur. A provisional diagnosis of a congenital cyanotic heart disease was made. Investigations revealed hemoglobin of 16.8g/dl. X–ray and electrocardiogram showed hypertrophy of the ventricles. An echocardiogram showed double inlet left ventricle with L-malposed vessels but without pulmonary stenosis. A final diagnosis of congenital heart disease; double inlet left ventricle, L-malposed vessels without pulmonary stenosis, Eisenmenger Syndrome and absolute erythrocytosis was made. Patient was advised for further management with a cardiologist in a tertiary center but the patient did not follow up. Conclusion: Unlike in high-income countries where most congenital heart diseases are detected and dealt with at birth whereas low-and middle-income nations often have to deal with cases that present much later and should often be included in the differential diagnosis. Inability to follow up cases, centers that are poorly equipped and lack of facilities for investigations, patient’s lack of medical awareness, and financial restrictions are major barriers to providing optimal treatment.
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