Spinal Cord Injury Induced Osteoporosis: Case Report and Current Literature
Keywords:Spinal Cord Injury, Osteoporosis, Teriparatide, Bone Density, SOST protein, human
Background: Among the various etiologies of osteoporosis, spinal cord injury has a drastic progression of the disease, causing weekly bone loss. There is no definitive treatment for the prevention of osteoporosis in these individuals. This review illustrates the recent findings on the pathophysiology, treatment, and management of spinal cord injury-induced osteoporosis. Furthermore, we cover a case of a male patient who experienced severe bone loss after a spinal cord injury at the age of 21 years.
The Case: We have a 57-year-old man with a history of AIS grade A spinal cord injury, level T11 with rod fixation from a motorcycle collision at age 21. His fracture history following the injury includes tibia, femur, and vertebral fractures. Bone mineral density imaging revealed notable T-scores ranging from -3.1 to -3.4 at the hip and femurs. Treatment plan consisted of teriparatide, dietary supplements, and physical therapy. Biomarkers from baseline to post one month of treatment revealed the following: procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide from 38 mcg/L to 70 mcg/L and C-terminal telopeptide from 209 pg/mL to 88 pg/mL, representing an increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, respectively. After two years, bone mineral density T-scores improved to -2.7 on the left and the patient was capable of standing for the first time with the assistance of a standing frame.
Conclusion: Our case exemplified the progression of the disease and treatment options. A basis for the derivation of future innovative therapies has been covered. Favorable treatments and management are described in the review.
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