Prevalence and Progression of Ametropias in Medical Students
Keywords:Medical students, Brazil, Refractive errors
Background: Uncorrected refractive errors (Myopia, Hyperopia and Astigmatism) are one of the main causes of poor vision, attributing to 43% of vision deficiencies. Myopia is the most common visual disorder in the world and can progress up until the age of 20-25, when many people are in university. The etiological factors that cause myopia are still unclear and deserve to be studied. Our aim was to identify the prevalence of ametropias and self-perception of ophthalmic health in medical students at the Centro Universitário Saúde ABC/FMABC.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with data collected at Centro Universitário Saúde ABC/FMABC from medical students. A total of 232 students participated in the survey, from the 1st to the 4th year of study. Data was obtained through a questionnaire, which evaluates ophthalmologic health, ametropia, and self-perception.
Results: It was observed that 74.57% of the students had some type of ametropia, myopia being the most recurrent (59.05%). The study shows significant data of an increase in the grade of students from 1st to 4th grade throughout college. It was observed that the average daily study time of the students was 9.68 hours and abuse in the use of electronic devices.
Conclusion: This study presented a high prevalence of ametropias among medical students at the Centro Universitário ABC/FMABC, in addition to a high prevalence of multifactorial myopia and an increased need to update their diopters (degrees) during the course of university.
Júnior A, Pinto G, Oliveira D, Holzmeister D, Portes A, Neurauter R. Prevalence of ametropias and ophthalmopathies in preschool and school children in favelas in Alto da Boa Vista, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rev Bras Oftalmol. 2007 Oct; 66(5): 304-308.
World Health Organization. Global magnitude of visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive errors in 2004 World Health Organization - WHO. Available from: https://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/86/1/07-041210/en/. Last updated August 20, 2020; cited January 03, 2021.
Schiefer U, Kraus C, Baumbach P, Ungewiß J, Michels R. Refractive errors. Dtsch Arztebl Int. Oct 2016;113(41):693-702.
Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, et al. Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050. Ophthalmology. May 2016;123(5):1036-42.
Wong TY, Ferreira A, Hughes R, Carter G, Mitchell P. Epidemiology and disease burden of pathologic myopia and myopic choroidal neovascularization: an evidence-based systematic review. Am J Ophthalmol. Jan 2014;157(1):9-25.e12.
Holden BA, Wilson DA, Jong M, et al. Myopia: a growing global problem with sight-threatening complications. Community Eye Health. 2015;28(90):35.
Alsaif BA, Aljindan MY, Alrammah HM, Almulla MO, Alshahrani SS. Refractive errors among Saudi college students and associated risk factors. Clin Ophthalmol. 2019 Feb 27;13:437-443.
Lin Z, Vasudevan B, Mao GY, et al. The influence of near work on myopic refractive change in urban students in Beijing: a three-year follow-up report. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. Nov 2016;254(11):2247-2255.
Muhamedagic L, Muhamedagic B, Halilovic EA, Halimic JA, Stankovic A, Muracevic B. Relation between near work and myopia progression in student population. Mater Sociomed. Apr 2014;26(2):100-3.
Mirshahi A, Ponto KA, Hoehn R, et al. Myopia and level of education: results from the Gutenberg Health Study. Ophthalmology. Oct 2014;121(10):2047-52.
Cumberland PM, Chianca A, Rahi JS, Consortium UBEaV. Accuracy and Utility of Self-report of Refractive Error. JAMA Ophthalmol. Jul 2016;134(7):794-801.
Hashemi H, Fotouhi A, Yekta A, Pakzad R, Ostadimoghaddam H, Khabazkhoob M. Global and regional estimates of prevalence of refractive errors: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Curr Ophthalmol. 2017 Sep 27;30(1):3-22.
Sherwin JC, Mackey DA. Update on the epidemiology and genetics of myopic refractive error. Expert Rev Ophthalmol. 2013;8(1):63-87.
Vitale S, Sperduto RD, Ferris FL. Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971-1972 and 1999-2004. Arch Ophthalmol. Dec 2009;127(12):1632-9.
Ferraz FH, Corrente JE, Opromolla P, Padovani CR, Schellini SA. Refractive errors in a Brazilian population: age and sex distribution. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. Jan 2015;35(1):19-27.
Pan CW, Ramamurthy D, Saw SM. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for myopia. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. Jan 2012;32(1):3-16.
Almalki NM, Alrajhi AA, Alharbi AH, Mahfouz MS. Prevalence of Refractive Errors and its Associated Risk Factors among Medical Students of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-sectional Study. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2021 Jan 19;27(4):210-217.
Khader YS, Batayha WQ, Abdul-Aziz SM, Al-Shiekh-Khalil MI. Prevalence and risk indicators of myopia among schoolchildren in Amman, Jordan. East Mediterr Health J. 2006 May-Jul 2006;12(3-4):434-9.
Lee YY, Lo CT, Sheu SJ, Lin JL. What factors are associated with myopia in young adults? A survey study in Taiwan Military Conscripts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Feb 2013;54(2):1026-33.
Konstantopoulos A, Yadegarfar G, Elgohary M. Near work, education, family history, and myopia in Greek conscripts. Eye (Lond). Apr 2008;22(4):542-6.
Wu HM, Seet B, Yap EP, Saw SM, Lim TH, Chia KS. Does education explain ethnic differences in myopia prevalence? A population-based study of young adult males in Singapore. Optom Vis Sci. Apr 2001;78(4):234-9.
Ip JM, Huynh SC, Robaei D, et al. Ethnic differences in the impact of parental myopia: findings from a population-based study of 12-year-old Australian children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Jun 2007;48(6):2520-8.
Victor G, Urbano A, Marçal S, et al. [First Brazilian refractive surgery survey]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2005 Nov-Dec 2005;68(6):727-33.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to email@example.com
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org