The Impact of Previous Cardiology Electives on Canadian Medical Student Interest and Understanding of Cardiology

Authors

  • Bright Huo BScPharm. Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • Wyatt MacNevin BEng. Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6418-625X
  • Todd Dow MD. Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9607-5071
  • Miroslaw Rajda MD; FRCPC. Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5195/ijms.2021.931

Keywords:

Medical education, Cardiology, Career choice, Medical students

Abstract

Background: Most Canadian medical schools do not have mandatory cardiology rotations. Early exposure to clinical cardiology aids career navigation, but clerkship selectives are chosen during pre-clerkship. This study investigates whether prior elective experiences affect medical student interest as well as understanding of cardiology before clerkship selections.

Methods: A literature search was conducted using Google Scholar, Embase and PubMed to create an evidence-based cross-sectional survey. The anonymous questionnaire was administered to 53 second-year medical students at a Canadian medical school via Opinio, an online survey platform. Students were assessed on their interest and understanding of cardiology practice using a 5-point Likert Scale. Descriptive statistics and Chi-Square analysis were applied to assess the relationship between previous elective experience, medical student interest, and understanding of career-related factors pertaining to cardiology.

Results: Overall, 26 (49.1%) students reported cardiology interest, while it was a preferred specialty for 9 (17.0%). Medical students reported low understanding of community practice (n=20, 37.7%), duration of patient relationships (n=14, 26.4%), spectrum of disorders (n=13, 24.5%), and in-patient care (n=11, 20.8%) associated with cardiology practice. Students with prior cardiology electives had increased understanding of in-patient care (?2= 4.688, Cramer’s V = 0.297, p = 0.030 and were more likely to select cardiology as a top specialty choice (?2= 7.983, Cramer’s V = 0.388, p = 0.005).

Conclusions: Pre-clerkship medical students have a low understanding of cardiology practice. Increasing pre-clerkship exposure to cardiology may help students determine their interest in the specialty before clerkship selectives are chosen.

References

Maudsley G, Williams L, Taylor D. Medical students’ and prospective medical students’ uncertainties about career intentions: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Med Teach. 2010;32(3):e143–e151.

Dyrbye LN, Burke SE, Hardeman RR, Herrin J, Wittlin NM, Yeazel M, et al. Association of clinical specialty with symptoms of burnout and career choice regret among US resident physicians. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2018;320(11):1114–30.

Horn L, Tzanetos K, Thorpe K, Straus SE. Factors associated with the subspecialty choices of internal medicine residents in Canada. BMC Med Educ. 2008;8(37):1–8.

Ephrem G. A Career of Lifelong Learning, Not Lifelong Training: An Early Cardiologist’s Perspective. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;65(24):2664–6.

Goldfarb MJ. The push to subspecialize: Choosing a career in cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(20):2174–5.

Walsh S, Arnold B, Pickwell-Smith B, Summers B. What kind of doctor would you like me to be? Clin Teach. 2016;13(2):98–101.

Querido S, van den Broek S, de Rond M, Wigersma L, Ten Cate O. Factors affecting senior medical students’ career choice. Int J Med Educ. 2018;9:332–9.

Cleland J, Johnston PW, French FH, Needham G. Associations between medical school and career preferences in Year 1 medical students in Scotland. Med Educ. 2012;46(5):473–84.

Vo A, McLean L, McInnes MDF. Medical specialty preferences in early medical school training in Canada. Int J Med Educ. 2017;8:400–7.

Scott I, Gowans MC, Wright B, Brenneis F. Why medical students switch careers: Changing course during the preclinical years of medical school. Can Fam Physician. 2007;53(1):94–5.

Ruth Wilson C, Bordman ZN. What to do about the Canadian Resident Matching Service. Cmaj. 2017;189(47):E1436–7.

Canadian Medical Association. Cardiology Profile [Internet]. 2018. Available from: https://www.cma.ca/sites/default/files/2019-01/cardiology-e_0.pdf. Last updated December 2019; cited June 23rd, 2021.

Trouton T. So you want to be a Cardiologist. Ulster Med J. 2014;83(1):73.

Stępień K, Połetek K, Komornik M, Siudak Z, Tokarek T, Dudek D. New methods and techniques in interventional cardiology. Evaluation the knowledge of medical students of Jagiellonian University Medical College. Folia Med Cracov. 2018;58(1):97–106.

Coyle C, Evans H. A career in cardiology: Why? Heart. 2019;105(6):498.

Azu OO, Naidu E, Naidu J. Choice of speciality amongst first-year medical students in the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal. African J Prim Heal Care Fam Med. 2013;5(1):1–7.

I. Elzain Y, Alawad AAMA, S. Khan W, O. Khalil H, M. Abdelrazig Y, B. Ahmed O, et al. Factors influencing the choice of internal medicine as a career among undergraduate medical students. Int J Heal. 2014;2(2):22–5.

Sheppard E, Smyth M, Dow T, Haupt TS, McVeigh S. The Effect of a 2-Week Pre-clerkship Residency Exploration Program on Specialty Interest and Understanding of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Arch Rehabil Res Clin Transl. 2019;2(1):1–7.

Smyth M, Toguri JT, Dow T, Haupt TS, Roberts A, Raju K. Medical student exposure to anesthesiology through the Pre-clerkship Residency Exploration Program: impact on career interest and understanding of anesthesiology. Can J Anesth. 2019;66(9):1126–8.

Smith F, Lambert TW, Pitcher A, Goldacre MJ. Career choices for cardiology: Cohort studies of UK medical graduates. BMC Med Educ. 2013;13(1):1.

Baldwin L-M, Chan L, Andrilla CHA, Huff ED, Hart LG. Quality of Care for Myocardial Infarction in Rural and Urban Hospitals. J Rural Heal. 2012;26(1):51–7.

Clark RA, Eckert KA, Stewart S, Phillips SM, Yallop JJ, Tonkin AM, et al. Rural and urban differentials in primary care management of chronic heart failure: New data from the CASE study. Med J Aust. 2007;186(9):441–5.

Lutfiyya MN, Bhat DK, Gandhi SR, Nguyen C, Weidenbacher-Hoper VL, Lipsky MS. A comparison of quality of care indicators in urban acute care hospitals and rural critical access hospitals in the United States. Int J Qual Heal Care. 2007;19(3):141–9.

Rush KL, Burton L, Van Der Merwe F, Hatt L, Galloway C. Atrial fibrillation care in rural communities: A mixed methods study of physician and patient perspectives. BMC Fam Pract. 2019;20(1):1–11.

Gamble JM, Eurich DT, Ezekowitz JA, Kaul P, Quan H, McAlister FA. Patterns of care and outcomes differ for urban versus rural patients with newly diagnosed heart failure, even in a universal healthcare system. Circ Hear Fail. 2011;4(3):317–23.

Kanmounye US, Temgoua M, Endomba FT. Determinants of Residency Program Choice in Two Central African Countries: An Internet Survey of Senior Medical Students. Int J Med Students. 2020;8(1):20–5.

Haupt TS, Dow T, Smyth M, Toguri JT, Roberts A, Raju K, et al. Medical student exposure to Radiation Oncology Through the Pre-clerkship Residency Exploration Program (PREP): Effect on Career Interest and Understanding of Radiation Oncology. Can J Anesth. 2019;66(9):1126–8.

Published

2021-07-21

How to Cite

Huo, B., MacNevin, W., Dow, T., & Rajda, M. (2021). The Impact of Previous Cardiology Electives on Canadian Medical Student Interest and Understanding of Cardiology. International Journal of Medical Students, 9(3), 207–212. https://doi.org/10.5195/ijms.2021.931

Issue

Section

Original Article