SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Healthcare Workers in Tijuana, Mexico: A Cross-Sectional Study

  • José Adrián Yamamoto-Moreno Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Medicina y Psicología, Tijuana; Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia y Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 7, Tijuana, México https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2468-5943
  • Cecilia Pineda-Aguilar Physician, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Medicina y Psicología, Tijuana; Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia y Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 7, Tijuana, México.
  • Samuel Ruiz-Pérez Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Medicina y Psicología, Tijuana, Mexico.
  • Gloria Liliana Gortarez-Quintana Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Medicina y Psicología, Tijuana, Mexico.
  • Marco Antonio Ruiz-Dorado Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia y Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 7, Tijuana, México.
Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Coronavirus, Health personnel, Healthcare workers

Abstract

Background: Healthcare workers (HCW) are a high-risk group for contraction of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect size of being a HCW and acquiring coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Tijuana, Mexico.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of the Epidemiologic Surveillance Online Notification System database was conducted, including entries from Tijuana City between March 11, 2020 to May 1, 2020. Multiple imputation was performed for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR result where data was missing. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) were calculated to estimate the effect size of HCWs contracting COVID-19 compared to the general population (GP).

Results: From a total of 10,216 entries, 6,256 patients were included for analysis. HCW status was significantly associated with higher odds of acquiring COVID-19, (POR=1.730, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.459;2.050). Nurses had double odds (POR=2.339, 95%CI=1.804;3.032) than the GP. Physicians had a POR=1.828 (95%CI=0.766;1.380). Resident physician status was double the likelihood of the GP (POR=2.166, 95%CI=0.933;5.025). Meanwhile, being an intern had a protective factor (POR=0.253, 95%CI=0.085;0.758). Among medical specialties, emergency medicine had the highest exposure-effect association, followed by anesthesiologists.

Conclusion: HCW had up to 73% increased odds of acquiring COVID-19 than the GP in Tijuana, Mexico. Nurses were the group with the highest likelihood out of all HCW, as a result of prolonged and close contact with patients. Emergency medicine and anesthesiology were the medical specialties with the highest odds of infection because they frequently perform aerosol-generating procedures.

Author Biographies

José Adrián Yamamoto-Moreno, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Medicina y Psicología, Tijuana; Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia y Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 7, Tijuana, México

José Adrián Yamamoto-Moreno is a recently graduated physician from a 7-year program at Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in México. He was awarded the Carlos Slim Foundation scholarship for excellence in Medicine and served as National Officer of Medical Publications in Asociación Mexicana de Médicos en Formación (AMMEF) from 2019-2020.

Cecilia Pineda-Aguilar, Physician, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Medicina y Psicología, Tijuana; Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia y Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 7, Tijuana, México.

Physician.

Samuel Ruiz-Pérez, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Medicina y Psicología, Tijuana, Mexico.

Medical student.

Gloria Liliana Gortarez-Quintana, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Facultad de Medicina y Psicología, Tijuana, Mexico.

Medical student.

Marco Antonio Ruiz-Dorado, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia y Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 7, Tijuana, México.

Internal medicine specialist.

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Published
2020-12-09
How to Cite
Yamamoto-Moreno, J. A., Pineda-Aguilar, C., Ruiz-Pérez, S., Gortarez-Quintana, G. L., & Ruiz-Dorado, M. A. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Healthcare Workers in Tijuana, Mexico: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Medical Students, 8(3), 220-230. https://doi.org/10.5195/ijms.2020.625
Section
Original Article