Outcomes of Patients Referred for Arteriovenous Fistula Construction: A Systematic Review
Keywords:Arteriovenous Fistula, Hemodialysis, Chronic Renal Insufficiency, Vascular Access Devices, Vascular Surgical Procedures
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) affects 10-16% of the US population and its incidence is rising due to increasing prevalence of associated risk factors. Renal replacement therapy is required to treat late stage CKD and hemodialysis is the preferred modality for many patients. Vascular access is required for hemodialysis and arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) are currently the gold standard. This review intended to collate current knowledge on AVF outcomes regarding both the patient and fistula. Scopus and Medline were utilized to identify relevant literature. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to narrow search results. Among CKD patients, 33.5-77.4% require a central venous catheter (CVC) before dialysis through a fistula. Many patients (33-51%) use a CVC regardless of AVF creation due to fistula immaturity or failure. There are large variations in AVF creation policies internationally; 16% of American hemodialysis patients use a fistula compared to 72% of German patients. Primary patency and primary AVFs' failure ranges from 60-70% and 20-26%, respectively. AVFs reduce morbidity and mortality in CKD. At present, too many patients are receiving hemodialysis through a CVC. Inadequate referral times for AVF creation can lead to fistula immaturity or failure in the intervention. Many countries are lagging behind recommended AVF creation rates published by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. There is a paucity of literature concerning when a patient should be referred for AVF creation. It is paramount to have better predictive outcome measures and more clarity as to when patients will benefit from an AVF.
Kimball TA, Barz K, Dimond KR, Edwards JM, Nehler MR. Efficiency of the kidney disease outcomes quality initiative guidelines for preemptive vascular access in an academic setting. J Vasc Surg. 2011 Sep;54(3):760-5; discussion 765-6.
Arora P, Vasa P, Brenner D, Iglar K, McFarlane P, Morrison H, et al. Prevalence estimates of chronic kidney disease in Canada: results of a nationally representative survey. CMAJ. 2013 Jun 11;185(9):E417-23
Hill NR, Fatoba ST, Oke JL, Hirst JA, O’Callaghan CA, Lasserson DS, et al. Global prevalence of chronic kidney disease–a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016 Jul 6;11(7):e0158765.
Coresh J, Selvin E, Stevens LA, Manzi J, Kusek JW, Eggers P, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the United States. JAMA. 2007 Nov 7;298(17):2038-47.
Romagnani P, Remuzzi G, Glassock R, Levin A, Jager KJ, Tonelli M, et al. Chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017 Nov 23;3:17088.
Levey AS, Coresh J. Chronic kidney disease. Lancet. 2012 Jan 14;379(9811):165-80.
National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002 Feb;39(2 Suppl 1):S1-266.
Vascular Access 2006 Work Group. Clinical practice guidelines for vascular access. Vol. 48 Suppl 1, Am J Kidney Dis. 2006 Jul;48 Suppl 1:S176-247.
Sinnakirouchenan R, Holley JL. Peritoneal dialysis versus hemodialysis: Risks, benefits, and access issues. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2011 Nov;18(6):428-32.
Perl J, Nessim SJ, Moist LM, Wald R, Na Y, Tennankore KK, et al. Vascular Access Type and Patient and Technique Survival in Home Hemodialysis Patients: The Canadian Organ Replacement Register. Am J Kidney Dis. 2016 Feb;67(2):251-9.
Ravani P, Palmer SC, Oliver MJ, Quinn RR, MacRae JM, Tai DJ, et al. Associations between hemodialysis access type and clinical outcomes: A systematic review. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013 Feb;24(3):465-73.
III. NKF-K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Vascular Access: update 2000. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001 Jan;37(1 Suppl 1):S137-81..
Ethier J, Mendelssohn DC, Elder SJ, Hasegawa T, Akizawa T, Akiba T, et al. Vascular access use and outcomes: an international perspective from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008 Oct;23(10):3219-26..
Tordoir J, Canaud B, Haage P, Konner K, Basci A, Fouque D. EBPG on vascular access. 1. Patient referral. European best practice guidelines on haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 May 1;22:ii88-ii117
Leake AE, Yuo TH, Wu T, Fish L, Dillavou ED, Chaer RA, et al. Arteriovenous grafts are associated with earlier catheter removal and fewer catheter days in the United States Renal Data System population. J Vasc Surg. 2015 Jul;62(1):123-7.
Xue H, Ix JH, Wang W, Brunelli SM, Lazarus M, Hakim R, et al. Hemodialysis access usage patterns in the incident dialysis year and associated catheter-related complications. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013 Jan;61(1):123-30.
Lee T, Barker J, Allon M. Tunneled catheters in hemodialysis patients: reasons and subsequent outcomes. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005 Sep;46(3):501–8.
Floege J, Gillespie IA, Kronenberg F, Anker SD, Gioni I, Richards S, et al. Development and validation of a predictive mortality risk score from a European hemodialysis cohort. Kidney Int. 2015 May;87(5):996-1008.
Allon M, Daugirdas J, Depner TA, Greene T, Ornt D, Schwab SJ. Effect of change in vascular access on patient mortality in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2006 Mar;47(3):469–77.
Leur K de, Öztürk Ç, Zeeland MLPV, Groot HGW de, Heyligers JMM, Vriens PWHE, et al. Vascular Access Outcome in the Elderly Dialysis Patient in Combination With the Quality of Life. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2013 Aug 6;47(6):444–8.
Korepta LM, Watson JJ, Elder EA, Davis AT, Mansour MA, Chambers CM, et al. Outcomes for forearm and upper arm arteriovenous fistula creation with the transposition technique. J Vasc Surg. 2016 Mar;63(3):764-71.
Stolic R. Most important chronic complications of arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis. Med Princ Pract. 2013;22(3):220-8.
Dember LM, Beck GJ, Allon M, Delmez JA, Dixon BS, Greenberg A, et al. Effect of clopidogrel on early failure of arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 May 14;299(18):2164–71.
Al-Jaishi AA, Oliver MJ, Thomas SM, Lok CE, Zhang JC, Garg AX, et al. Patency rates of the arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014 Mar;63(3):464-78.
Wilmink T, Hollingworth L, Powers S, Allen C, Dasgupta I. Natural History of Common Autologous Arteriovenous Fistulae: Consequences for Planning of Dialysis Access. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2016 Jan;51(1):134-40.
Biuckians A, Scott EC, Meier GH, Panneton JM, Glickman MH. The natural history of autologous fistulas as first-time dialysis access in the KDOQI era. J Vasc Surg. 2008 Feb;47(2):415-21; discussion 420-1.
Glynn L. EBL Critical Appraisal Checklist. Libr Hi Tech. 2006;24(3):387–99.
Glynn L. A critical appraisal tool for library and information research. Library Hi Tech. Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2006;24(3):387–99.
Al-Jaishi AA, Lok CE, Garg AX, Zhang JC, Moist LM. Vascular access creation before hemodialysis initiation and use: a population-based cohort study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Mar 6;10(3):418–27.
Dageforde LA, Harms KA, Feurer ID, Shaffer D. Increased minimum vein diameter on preoperative mapping with duplex ultrasound is associated with arteriovenous fistula maturation and secondary patency. J Vasc Surg. 2015 Jan;61(1):170-6.
Schinstock CA, Albright RC, Williams AW, Dillon JJ, Bergstralh EJ, Jenson BM, et al. Outcomes of Arteriovenous Fistula Creation after the Fistula First Initiative. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Aug;6(8):1996-2002.
Masengu A, McDaid J, Maxwell AP, Hanko JB. Preoperative radial artery volume flow is predictive of arteriovenous fistula outcomes. J Vasc Surg. 2016 Feb;63(2):429-35.
Lee JH, Won JH, Oh CK, Jung HA. Clinical significance of upper-arm cephalic vein patency in autogenous radial-cephalic wrist fistulas for hemodialysis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2012 Nov;44(5):514–20.
Mendelssohn DC, Ethier J, Elder SJ, Saran R, Port FK, Pisoni RL. Haemodialysis vascular access problems in Canada: results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS II). Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006 Mar;21(3):721-8.
Young EW, Dykstra DM, Goodkin DA, Mapes DL, Wolfe RA, Held PJ. Hemodialysis vascular access preferences and outcomes in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). Kidney Int. 2002 Jun;61(6):2266-71.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to email@example.com