Acute Liver Failure in Patients with Classic Heat Stroke
Keywords:Heart stroke, Liver failure, Mortality
Background: Classic heat stroke is defined by a core temperature greater than 40° C, severe dehydration and neurological alterations. Patients with liver disease due to heat stroke have been described, mostly by exercise. Hepatic failure is defined as the presence of a coagulopathy accompanied by any degree of hepatic encephalopathy. The primary objective of the study lies in the fact that patients who developed acute liver failure during their hospital stay had a higher risk of mortality.
Methods: A retrospective, analytical study of patients admitted to the General Hospital of Mexicali who suffered from classic heat stroke from March 2006 through August 2010, and a second period from June 2018 to August 2019.
Results: Fifty patients were recruited, the group included 48 (96%) male, with a total of 10 fatalities, representing 20%. INR greater than 1.5, AST and ALT levels were not related to an increased mortality rate.
Conclusion: Neither transaminase levels, nor liver failure, were related to a higher mortality rate in this cohort of patients with classic heat stroke.
Giercksky T, Boberg KM, Farstad IN, Halvorsen S, Schrumpf E. Severe liver failure in exertional heat stroke. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1999 Aug; 34(8):824–7.
Leon LR, Bouchama A. Heat stroke. Compr Physiol. 2015 Apr; 5(2):611–47.
Figiel W, Morawski M, Grąt M, Kornasiewicz O, Niewiński G, Raszeja-Wyszomirska J, et al. Fulminant liver failure following a marathon: Five case reports and review of literature. World J Clin Cases. 2019 Jun; 7(12):1467–74.
Jaramillo-Ramírez HJ, Cota GL, Lomelí MR. Golpe de calor: un problema de salud pública en Mexicali. Salud Pública de México. 2011 Jul; 53(4):285–6. Spanish.
Busto Bea V, García-Alonso FJ, Moreira Vicente V. Afectación hepática en el golpe de calor. Med Clin (Barc). 2012 Apr; 138(8):361–5. Spanish.
Davis BC, Tillman H, Chung RT, Stravitz RT, Reddy R, Fontana RJ, et al. Heat stroke leading to acute liver injury & failure: A case series from the Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Liver Int. 2017 Apr; 37(4):509–13.
Munoz Santiago J, Stravitz RT, Don A. Gabriel. Coagulopathy of Acute Liver Failure. Clin Liver Dis 133. 2009 Feb;95-107.
Bernal William, Wendon Julia,. Acute Liver Failure. N Engl J Med. 2013 Mar; 369: 2525-34.
Butterworth Roger F. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy and Brain Edema in Acute Liver Failure. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2014 Mar; 1-8.
Jin Q, Chen E, Jiang J, Lu Y. Acute Hepatic Failure as a Leading Manifestation in Exertional Heat Stroke. Case Rep Crit Care. 2012 Jun; 2012:1-4.
Trujillo MH, Fragachán G. C. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Kidney Injury due to Severe Heat Stroke. Case Reports in Critical Care. 2011 Sep; 2011:1–4.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to email@example.com