The Risk of Contact Lens Wear and the Avoidance of Complications
Keywords:Contact Lenses, Complications, Keratitis, Patient Compliance
Contact lenses are lenses placed on the surface of the cornea to correct refractive errors such as myopia (short-sightedness), hypermetropia (far-sightedness) and astigmatism. Lens-related complications are becoming a greater health concern as increasing number of individuals are using them as an alternative to spectacles. Contact lenses alter the natural ocular environment and reduce the efficacy of the innate defences. Although many complications are minor, microbial keratitis is potentially blinding and suspected cases should be rapidly diagnosed and referred to an ophthalmologist for treatment. Several risk factors have been identified with extended wear, poor hand hygiene, inadequate lens and lens-case care being the most significant. Promotion of good contact lens hygiene and practices are essential to reduce the adverse effects of contact lens wear.
2. Fleiszig SMJ. The Glenn A. Fry Award Lecture 2005. The pathogenesis of contact lens-related keratitis. Optom Vis Sci 2006;83(12):e866-e873.
3. The Association of Contact Lens Manufacturers. ACLM Market Report 2009: Technical Summary.
4. Stamler JF. The complications of contact lens wear. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1998;9(4):66-71.
5. Brennan NA, Coles ML. Proposed performance criteria for extended wear contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2000;23(4):135-9.
6. Morgan PB, Efron N, Brennan NA, Hill EA, Raynor MK, Tullo AB. Risk factors for the development of corneal infiltrative events associated with contact lens wear. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46(9):3136-43.
7. Morgan PB, Efron N, Hill EA, Raynor MK, Whiting MA, Tullo AB. Incidence of keratitis of varying severity among contact lens wearers. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89(4):430-6.
8. Morgan PB. Contact lens compliance and reducing the risk of keratitis. Optician 2007;234:20-5.
9. Stapleton F, Keay L, Jalbert I, Cole N. The epidemiology of contact lens related infiltrates. Optom Vis Sci 2007;84(4):257-72.
10. Kara-Jose N, Coral-Ghanem C, Joslin CE. Complications Associated with Contact Lens Use. In: Mannis MJ, Zadnik K, Kara-Jose N, Coral-Ghanem C, ed. Contact Lenses in Ophthalmic Practice. 1st ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2003:243-266.
11. Turturro MA, Paris PM, Arffa R, Wilcox D. Contact lens complications. Am J Emerg Med 1990;8(3):228-33.
12. Stapleton F, Willcox MD, Fleming CM, Hickson S, Sweeney DF, Holden BA. Changes to the ocular biota with time in extended- and daily-wear disposable contact lens use. Infect Immun 1995;63(11):4501-5.
13. Slusher MM, Myrvik QN, Lewis JC, Gristina AG. Extended-wear lenses, biofilm, and bacterial adhesion. Arch Ophthalmol 1987;105(1):110-5.
14. Miller MJ, Wilson LA, Ahearn DG. Effects of protein, mucin, and human tears on adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to hydrophilic contact lenses. J Clin Microbiol 1988;26(3):513-7.
15. Fowler SA, Allansmith MR. Evolution of soft contact lens coatings. Arch Ophthalmol 1980;98(1):95-9.
16. Sorbara L, Jones L, Williams-Lyn D. Contact lens induced papillary conjunctivitis with silicone hydrogel lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2009;32(2):93-6.
17. Sankaridurg PR, Sharma S, Willcox M, et al. Bacterial colonization of disposable soft contact lenses is greater during corneal infiltrative events than during asymptomatic extended lens wear. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38(12):4420-4.
18. Chen Q, Wang J, Shen M, et al. Tear menisci and ocular discomfort during daily contact lens wear in symptomatic wearers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52(5):2175-80.
19. Maltseva IA, Fleiszig SM, Evans DJ, et al. Exposure of human corneal epithelial cells to contact lenses in vitro suppresses the upregulation of human beta-defensin-2 in response to antigens of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Exp Eye Res 2007;85(1):142-53.
20. Cavanagh HD, Robertson DM, Petroll WM, Jester JV. Castroviejo Lecture 2009: 40 years in search of the perfect contact lens. Cornea 2010;29(10):1075-85.
21. Jones LW, Jones DA. Non-inflammatory corneal complications of contact lens wear. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2001;24(2):73-9.
22. Millis E. Contact lenses and the red eye. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 1997;20 Suppl 1:S5-10.
23. Efron N, Carney LG. Oxygen levels beneath the closed eyelid. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1979;18(1):93-5. 24. Efron N, Morgan PB, Hill EA, Raynor MK, Tullo AB. Incidence and morbidity of hospital-presenting corneal infiltrative events associated with contact lens wear. Clin Exp Optom 2005;88(4):232-9.
25. Radford CF, Minassian DC, Dart JK. Disposable contact lens use as a risk factor for microbial keratitis. Br J Ophthalmol 1998;82(11):1272-5.
26. Szczotka-Flynn L, Pearlman E, Ghannoum M. Microbial Contamination of Contact Lenses, Lens Care Solutions, and Their Accessories: A Literature Review. Eye Contact Lens 2010; 36(2): 116–29.
27. Cheng KH, Leung SL, Hoekman HW, et al. Incidence of contact-lens-associated microbial keratitis and its related morbidity. Lancet 1999;354(9174):181-5.
28. Efron N, Morgan PB. Rethinking contact lens associated keratitis. Clin Exp Optom 2006;89(5):280-98.
29. Keay L, Edwards K, Naduvilath T, Forde K, Stapleton F. Factors affecting the morbidity of contact lens-related microbial keratids: A population study. Invest Ophthalmol Visual Sci 2006;47(10):4302-8.
30. Stover CK, Pham XQ, Erwin AL, et al. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, an opportunistic pathogen. Nature 2000;406(6799):959-64.
31. Butler TK, Males JJ, Robinson LP, et al. Six-year review of Acanthamoeba keratitis in New South Wales, Australia: 1997-2002. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2005;33(1):41-6.
32. Lindsay RG, Watters G, Johnson R, Ormonde SE, Snibson GR. Acanthamoeba keratitis and contact lens wear. Clin Exp Optom 2007;90(5):351-60.
33. Kilvington S, Gray T, Dart J, et al. Acanthamoeba keratitis: the role of domestic tap water contamination in the United Kingdom. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004;45(1):165-9.
34. Dart JK, Saw VP, Kilvington S. Acanthamoeba keratitis: diagnosis and treatment update 2009. Am J Ophthalmol 2009;148(4):487-499.e2.
35. Sweeney D, Holden B, Evans K, Ng V, Cho P. Best practice contact lens care: a review of the Asia Pacific Contact Lens Care Summit. Clin Exp Optom 2009;92(2):78-89.
36. Zhu H, Willcox MD. Detection of staphylococcal superantigens from contact-lens-induced inflammatory diseases. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 1999;27(3-4):237-40.
37. Dart JK, Radford CF, Minassian D, Verma S, Stapleton F. Risk factors for microbial keratitis with contemporary contact lenses: a case-control study. Ophthalmology 2008;115(10):1647-54, 1654.e1-3.
38. O’Donnell C, Efron N. Contact lens wear and diabetes mellitus. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 1998;21(1):19-26.
39. Cardona G, Llovet I. Compliance amongst contact lens wearers: comprehension skills and reinforcement with written instructions. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2004;27(2):75-81.
40. Morgan PB. The Science of Compliance. Visions 2008;8-9.
41. Morgan PB. The Science of Compliance: a guide for the eye care professional. 2007.
42. Larson E, Aiello A, Lee LV, Della-Latta P, Gomez-Duarte C, Lin S. Short- and long-term effects of handwashing with antimicrobial or plain soap in the community. J Community Health 2003;28(2):139-50.
43. ECP Research Report. Research Links. 2007.
44. Robertson DM, Cavanagh HD. The Clinical and Cellular Basis of Contact Lens-related Corneal Infections: A Review. Clin Ophthalmol 2008;2(4):907-17.
45. Shoff ME, Joslin CE, Tu EY, Kubatko L, Fuerst PA. Efficacy of contact lens systems against recent clinical and tap water Acanthamoeba isolates. Cornea 2008;27(6):713-9.
46. Carnt N, Keay L, Naduvilath T, Holden BA, Willcox MDP. Risk factors associated with corneal inflammation in contact lens wear. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007;48: E-Abstract 4326.
47. Hughes R, Kilvington S. Comparison of hydrogen peroxide contact lens disinfection systems and solutions against Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001;45(7):2038-43.
48. Memarzadeh F, Shamie N, Gaster RN, Chuck RS. Corneal and conjunctival toxicity from hydrogen peroxide: a patient with chronic self-induced injury. Ophthalmology 2004;111:(8)1546-9.
49. Yung MS, Boost M, Cho P, Yap M. Microbial contamination of contact lenses and lens care accessories of soft contact lens wearers (university students) in Hong Kong. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2007;27(1):11-21.
50. Fogel J, Zidile C. Contact lenses purchased over the internet place individuals potentially at risk for harmful eye care practices. Optometry 2008;79(1):23-35.
51. Steinemann TL, Pinninti U, Szczotka LB, Eiferman RA, Price FW,Jr. Ocular complications associated with the use of cosmetic contact lenses from unlicensed vendors. Eye Contact Lens 2003;29(4):196-200.
52. Steinemann TL, Fletcher M, Bonny AE, et al. Over-the-counter decorative contact lenses: Cosmetic or Medical Devices? A Case Series. Eye Contact Lens 2005;31(5):194-200.
53. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Guidance for Industry, FDA Staff, Eye Care Professionals, and Consumers. Decorative, Non-corrective Contact Lenses. November 2006.
54. Nichols JJ, Marsich MM, Nguyen M, Barr JT, Bullimore MA. Overnight orthokeratology. Optom Vis Sci 2000;77(5):252-9.
55. Watt KG, Swarbrick HA. Trends in microbial keratitis associated with orthokeratology. Eye Contact Lens 2007;33(6 Pt 2):373-7; discussion 382.
56. Watt K, Swarbrick HA. Microbial keratitis in overnight orthokeratology: review of the first 50 cases. Eye Contact Lens 2005;31(5):201-8.
57. Schein OD, McNally JJ, Katz J, et al. The incidence of microbial keratitis among wearers of a 30-day silicone hydrogel extended-wear contact lens. Ophthalmology 2005;112(12):2172-9.
58. White P, Cho P. Legal issues in contact lens practice with special reference to the practice of orthokeratology. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2003;23(2):151-61.
59. Collins MJ, Carney LG. Compliance with care and maintenance procedures amongst contact lens wearers. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 1986;69(5):174-7.
60. Claydon BE, Efron N, Woods C. A prospective study of the effect of education on non-compliant behaviour in contact lens wear. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 1997;17(2):137-46.
61. Efron N. The truth about compliance. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 1997;20(3):79-86.
62. Tajunisah I, Ophth M, Reddy SC, Phuah SJ. Knowledge and practice of contact lens wear and care among medical students of University of Malaya. Med J Malaysia 2008;63(3):207-10.
63. Bausch & Lomb. Bausch & Lomb Launches New Bottle Innovation in Europe Supported By Eye-Catching Online Campaign. London, UK. Bausch & Lomb Incorporated 2009.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to email@example.com
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org