Essential Heavy Metals in Renal Tumor Tissue and Its Possible Relation to Carcinogenesis: Applying the Scanning Electron Microscopy Coupled with X-Ray Microanalysis Technique
Background: Metals such as copper and zinc are crucial in several vital functions in the human body; the absence of these metals can cause serious illness. When in excess, however, they can have toxic effects which may be associated with carcinogenesis, as is described in the literature. Thus, it is important to realize that without these essential metals in their due proportion, the human body could not maintain its proper metabolic function.
Methods: The main goal of this paper was to compare qualitatively and semi-quantitatively the amount of both copper and zinc present in the tumor tissue (tissue from patients who had undergone partial or radical nephrectomy) andin the control tissue (which was adjacent to the tumor tissue). This study was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-Ray Microanalysis (SEM-XRM).
Results: There is a different concentrations of copper and zinc in the samples of tumor tissue and controls that were studied.
Conclusion: This work complements previously published results about the presence of metals in the human body and their probable influence on carcinogenesis
2. Huang C, Chen QL, Luo Z, Shi X, Pan YX, Song YF, et al. Time-dependent effects of waterborne copper exposure influencing hepatic lipid deposition and metabolism in javelin goby Synechogobius hasta and their mechanism. Aquat Toxicol. 2014 Oct;155:291-300.
3. Whitehouse MW, Walken WR. Copper and inflammation. Agents Actions. 1978 Jan;8(1-2):85-90.
4. Bustamante JB, Mateo MC, Fernandez J, de Quiros B, Manchado OO. Zinc, copper and ceruloplasmin in arteriosclerosis. Biomedicine. 1976 Sep 30;25(7):244-5.
5. Vyden JK, Throner J, Nagasawa K, Takano T, Groseth-Dittrich MF, Perlow R, et al. Metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Am Heart J. 1975 Dec;90(6):703-8.
6. Al-Ebraheem A, Farquharson MJ, Ryan E. The evaluation of biologically important trace metals in liver, kidney and breast tissue. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009 Mar;67(3):470-4.
7. Jomova K, Valko M. Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and hu¬man disease. Toxicology. 2011 May 10;283(2-3):65-87.
8. Prasad AS, Kucuk O. Zinc in cancer prevention. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2002;21(3-4):291-5.
9. Plum LM, Rink L, Haase H. The essential toxin: impact of zinc on human health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Apr;7(4):1342-65.
10. Gupta M, Mahajan VK, Mehta KS, Chauhan PS. Zinc therapy in dermatolo¬gy: a review. Dermatol Res Pract. 2014;2014:709152.
11. Maywald M, Rink L. Zinc homeostasis and immunosenescence. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2015 Jan;29:24-30.
12. Onosaka S, Tetsuchikawahara N, Min KS. Paradigm shift in zinc: metal pathology. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2002 Jan;196(1):1-7.
13. Stefanidou M, Maravelias C, Dona A, Spiliopoulou C. Zinc: a multipurpose trace element. Arch Toxicol. 2006 Jan;80(1):1-9.
14. Chronopoulos J, Haidouti C, Chronopoulou-Sereli A, Massas I. Variations in plant and soil lead and cadmium content in urban parks in Athens, Greece. Sci Total Environ. 1997 Mar 9;196(1):91-8.
15. Cunha EM, Silva DP, Aguas AP. High-resolution identification of mercury in particles in mouse kidney after acute lethal exposure. Biometals. 2003 Dec;16(4):583-90.
16. Jennette KW. The role of metals in carcinogenesis: biochemistry and me¬tabolism. Environ Health Perspect. 1981 Aug;40:233-52.
17. Mantovani A, Allavena P, Sica A, Balkwill F. Cancer-related inflammation. Nature. 2008 Jul 24;454(7203):436-44.
18. Bryś M, Nawrocka AD, Miekoś E, Zydek C, Foksiński M, Barecki A, et al. Zinc and cadmium analysis in human prostate neoplasms. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1997 Winter;59(1-3):145-52.
19. Ogunlewe JO, Osegbe DN. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in indigenous blacks with normal, hypertrophic, and malignant prostate. Cancer. 1989 Apr 1;63(7):1388-92.
20. Hardell L, Wing AM, Ljungberg B, Dreifaldt AC, Degerman A, Halmans G. Levels of cadmium, zinc and copper in renal cell carcinoma and normal kidney. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1994 Jan;3(1):45-8.
21. Pirincci N, Gecit I, Gunes M, Kaba M, Tanik S, Yuksel MB, et al. Levels of serum trace elements in renal cell carcinoma cases. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(1):499-502.
22. Fassina AS, Calliari I, Sangiorgio A, Rossato M, Ramigni M, Dal Bian¬co M, et al. Quantitative analysis of trace elements in human clear cell carcinoma of the kidney by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Eur Urol. 1990;18(2):140-4
23. Karcioglu ZA, Sarper RM, Van Rinsvelt HA, Guffey JA, Fink RW. Trace ele¬ment concentrations in renal cell carcinoma. Cancer. 1978 Sep;42(3):1330-40.
24. Dobrowolski Z, Drewniak T, Kwiatek W, Jakubik P. Trace elements distribution in renal cell carcinoma depending on stage of disease. Eur Urol. 2002 Nov;42(5):475-80.
25. Cerulli N, Campanella L, Grossi R, Politi L, Scandurra R, Soda G, et al. Determination of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in neoplastic kidneys and in renal tissue of fetuses, newborns and corpses. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2006;20(3):171-9.
26. Waisberg M, Joseph P, Hale B, Beyersmann D. Molecular and cellular me¬chanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis. Toxicology. 2003 Nov 5;192(2-3):95-117.
27. Aquino NB, Sevigny MB, Sabangan J, Louie MC. The role of cadmium and nickel in estrogen receptor signaling and breast Cancer: metalloestrogens or not? J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2012;30(3):189-224.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to email@example.com
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org