Syrians' Awareness of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Warning Signs: A Cross Sectional Study
Keywords:Cardiovascular disease (CVD), Risk Factors, Warning Signs, Awareness, General Population, Syria
Background: An estimated 17.8 million lives were lost in 2017 due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), resulting in a total of 330 million years of life lost and an additional 35.6 million years of disability. Numerous studies have shown the importance of education and awareness in promoting positive and long-lasting behavioral changes. This study aims to assess Syrians' awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) warning symptoms and risk factors and investigate further into the variables that contribute to this awareness.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken online between August 1 and 25, 2022, to examine Syrian individuals' awareness of cardiovascular disease risk factors and early warning signs. The study's questionnaire was constructed based on prior research, and the inclusion criteria for the sample were citizens of Syria over the age of 18 who currently reside in Syria. There were three categories of questions on the questionnaire: sociodemographics, an evaluation of CVD knowledge using both open- and closed-ended inquiries, and medical history and behavioral risk factors.
Results: There were 1201 inquired participants; 728 (60.6%) were males, and 473 (39.5%) were females. Concerns about developing diabetes were reported by 45.8% (n=550), hypertension was feared by 54.0% (n=540), and 43.9% (n=572) of individuals, and heart disease was feared by 45.9% (n=572). The internet and social media platforms were the most common ways they learned about it. Closed-ended questions indicated that the majority of participants (n=1164, 94.9%) had recognized CVD risk factors, with smoking (95.2%), obesity (93.6%), cholesterol (91%), and hypertension (90.3%) being the most often reported risk factors. Close-ended questions regarding CVD warning indicators revealed that most participants (n=897, 74.7%) correctly identified the warning symptoms. However, in response to open-ended questions, most participants (n=478, 39.8%) did not identify CVD risk factors, as well only (n=291, 24.2%) did. In addition, open-ended questions concerning CVD warning signs indicated that more than half of the participants (n=680, 56.6%) had poor identification of the warning symptoms. The age group between 55 and 64 years had the greatest CVD risk factors, and education was related to greater knowledge of CVD risk factors (P-value<0.001). Males have a greater understanding of CVD risk factors than females, and married individuals have a greater understanding of CVD warning signals than those with other marital statuses. Country-dwelling individuals are less knowledgeable about CVD risk factors and warning symptoms than city-dwelling participants.
Conclusion: According to our results, there is inadequate knowledge of the risk factors and warning signs of CVDs, which contribute to the development of this illness and result in life-threatening circumstances. Consequently, there is a larger need to raise CVD awareness and learning initiatives on the disease's risk factors and symptoms. It may be able to reduce the number of advanced instances of this illness by educating individuals about the hazards of smoking and alcohol intake and by considering the family history of these CVDs.
- 2023-02-21 (2)
- 2022-12-31 (1)
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Sarya Swed, Hidar Alibrahim, Haidara Bohsas, Mohammed Amir Rais, Sheikh Shoib, Anas Alali, Mohamed Abdelnasser, Hadeel Fuad Alwan Alsharjabi, Bisher Sawaf
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to email@example.com