Characterization of Patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome in the General Hospital of Mexicali
Keywords:Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Polyradiculoneuropathy, Immunoglobulin therapy, Mechanical ventilation, Acute kidney failure, Plasmapheresis
Background: Guillain-Barré Syndrome is a progressive autoimmune polyradiculoneuropathy characterized by symmetrical flaccid paralysis accompanied by areflexia, hyporeflexia or hyperreflexia on rare occasions. Worldwide, it remains the first cause of flaccid paralysis. It is usually associated with infectious disease history; however, there are various clinical variants, each with a different outcome. Prognosis is usually good, although 20% of patients could suffer a severe clinical variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome and 5% will die despite treatment.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, including the records of hospitalized patients with Guillain- Barré Syndrome at Mexicali’s General Hospital within a five-year period.
Results: In a five-year span there were 64 patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome, most of the patients were men (70.3%), with age ranging 1 to 76 years. A total of 8 (12.5%) patients died, from which 7 (87.5%) required mechanical ventilation during hospitalization. Immunoglobulin therapy was provided to 56 (87.5%) patients, and 6 (10.7%) of them perished due to acute kidney injury.
Conclusion: Guillain-Barré Syndrome is a common disease among male population, with no dominating onset age, however, leaning for the young and elder. Most of the patients that were hospitalized at the General Hospital of Mexicali had a history of previous infection (gastrointestinal, respiratory, or other infectious diseases). The need for mechanical ventilation represents a higher severity index, nonetheless, this does not mean that assisted ventilation is directly associated with mortality. As for treatment, immunoglobulin is the most common choice for therapy, though some of the patients died from acute kidney injury.
Afifi AK. The Landry-Guillain-Barré Strohl Syndrome 1859 to 1992 A Historical Perspective. J Family Community Med. 1994 Jan-Dec;1(1):30–34.
Singhal V, Bhat KG. Guillain–Barre syndrome with hyperreflexia: A variant. J Pediatr Neurosci. 2011 Jul;6(2):144-5.
Medina BS, Vargas D, Rodríguez I, Orozco A, Hernández H. Descripción clínica y relación con la estancia hospitalaria de pacientes con síndrome de Guillain-Barré en un comunitario en México. Rev Mex Neurocienc. 2015 Marzo-Abril;16(2):3–15. Spanish.
Rebolledo-García D, González-Vargas PO, Salgado-Calderón I. Síndrome de Guillain-Barré: viejos y nuevos conceptos. Med Int Méx. 2018 enero;34(1):72-81. Spanish.
Yuki N, Hartung HP. Guillain–Barré Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jun 14;366(24):2294-304.
Sejvar JJ, Baughman AL, Wise M, Morgan OW. Population Incidence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Neuroepidemiology. 2011 Mar;36(2):123–33.
Domínguez-Moreno R, Tolosa-Tort P, Patiño-Tamez A, Quintero-Bauman A, Collado-Frías DK, Miranda-Rodríguez MG, et al. Mortality associated with a diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults of Mexican health institutions. Rev Neurol. 2014 Jan;58(1):4-10. Spanish.
Jackson BR, Zegarra JA, López-Gatell H, Sejvar J, Arzate F, Waterman S, et al. Binational outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Campylobacter jejuni infection, Mexico and USA, 2011. Epidemiol Infect. 2014 May;142(5):1089–99.
Romero MT, Franco T, Arzate F, García A, Terríquez A, Hernández N, et al.Guillain-Barré outbreak study in Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico.J Vaccines Vaccin 2018 March; 9:66
Fokke C, van den Berg B, Drenthen J, Walgaard C, van Doorn PA, Jacobs BC. Diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome and validation of Brighton criteria. Brain J Neurol. 2014 Jan;137(Pt 1):33–43.
Doets AY, Verboon C, van den Berg B, Harbo T, Cornblath DR, Willison HJ, et al. Regional variation of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain. 2018 Oct 1;141(10):2866-2877
Hadden RD, Cornblath DR, Hugles RA, Zielasek J, Hartung HP, Tokya KV, et. al. Electrophysiological classification of Guillain-Barré syndrome: clinical associations and outcome. Ann Neurol. 1998 Nov;44(5):780-8.
Asbury AK, Cornblath DR. Assessment of Current Diagnostic Criteria for Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1990;27(suppl):S21-S24.
Luigetti Marco, Servidei Serenella, Modoni Anna, Rossini Paolo María, Sabatelli Mario, Monaci Mauro Lo. Admisión neurophysiological abnormalities un Guillain-Barré syndrome: A single-center experience. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. 2015 Feb; 6-10.
Carrillo-Pérez DL, García-Ramos G, Ruano-Calderón LA, Sosa-Hernández JL, Méndez-Castillo JJ. Síndrome de Guillain-Barré en un hospital de referencia en México. Rev Mex Neuroci. 2012 Enero-Febrero;13(1):15-21. Spanish.
Palmezano JM, Rodríguez RM, Rangel DA, Galvis SJ, Camargo WA, Figueroa CL, et al.Perfil Clínico de Pacientes con Síndrome de Guillain Barre en un Hospital Universitario en Colombia. Archivos de medicina. 2017 Oct;13(4):1-6. Spanish.
Rudant J, Dupont A, Mikaeloff Y, Bolgert F, Coste J, Weill A. Surgery and risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome: A French nationwide epidemiologic study. Neurology. 2018 Sept;91(13):e1220–7.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to email@example.com
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org