Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Immune Thrombocytopenia

Keywords: primary immune thrombocytopenia, ITP, guidelines, thrombopoietin receptor agonists, splenectomy, immune thrombocytopenic purpura

Abstract

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia with a peripheral blood count < 100.000/ mm3 in the absence of any obvious initiating or underlying causes, by antibody mediated destruction of platelets and suppression of megakaryocyte and platelet production on the basis of immune deregulation. ITP is idiopathic (primary) in 80% of cases and secondary to several associated disorders in 20% of cases. A diagnosis of exclusion, based on patient history, physical examination, complete blood count and examination of the peripheral blood smear, is used for ITP. The treatment of ITP is indicated in adult patients with platelet counts below 20.000-30.000/ mm3, with bleedings or risk for bleeding. First line therapy is represented by corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and intravenous anti-RhD. Second-line treatment is represented by: splenectomy, inhibition of the monocytic phagocytic system therapy, immunosupressive therapy, anabolic steroids, anti-CD20 therapy, and thrombopoietin receptor agonists.

Author Biography

Mihnea-Alexandru Găman, Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

Mihnea- Alexandru Găman is currently a 4th year medical student of ”Carol Davila”University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania of a six year program. He is currently working on a research project concerning the molecular analysis of the Factor VIII (F8) gene, funded by the Society of Students in Medicine of Bucharest (SSMB).

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Published
2017-03-19
How to Cite
Găman, M.-A., & Găman, A. M. (2017). Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Immune Thrombocytopenia. International Journal of Medical Students, 5(1), 32-36. https://doi.org/10.5195/ijms.2017.171
Section
Review