Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Diabetes in Medical Students: Observational Study, Experience in Colombia
Background: Cardiovascular Disease is a leading cause of preventable death. Cardiovascular risk factors’ identification is the cornerstone for effective and early interventions decreasing the frequency of acute health-threatening events. Since adolescence and youth are very vulnerable stages to develop risky habits, we decided to run this study in the Multidisciplinary Universitary Camp for Research and Service.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in the Multidisciplinary Universitary Camp for Research and Service in which 450 medical students from Colombia were assessed. After a probabilistic random simple sampling (n=50), we applied the World Health Organization test and Finnish Risk Score to calculate Cardiovascular and Diabetes Mellitus risk, respectively. We characterized the population by sociodemographic variables and anthropometric measurements.
Results: The study shows that from 18 participating universities (n=50), the mean age of the participants was 21.14 years (SD 7.3) of whom 40% were male and 60% were female. Overall, 92% have a low risk of cardiovascular disease, 6% are at moderate risk and 2% are at high risk. 92% have low risk of diabetes mellitus and 8% are at moderate risk of having diabetes mellitus in the long term.
Conclusion: The early identification of and intervention on risk factors could decrease significantly the onset of acute health-threatening cardiovascular pathologies. As medical students, adolescents and young adults are at risk of developing unhealthy habits which increase the incidence of cardiovascular disorders. The use of anthropometric measures and validated risk score scales is an appropriate way to get evidence for starting early interventions.
Martínez MA, Leiva AM, Sotomayor C, Victoriano T, Von Chrismar AM, Pineda S. [Cardiovascular risk factors among university students]. Rev Med Chil. 2012 Apr;140(4):426-35. Spanish.
Shah NS, Rassiwala J, Ducharme-Smith AL, Klein DA, Kim AS, Leung C, et al. Development and evaluation of a service-learning model for preclinical student education in cardiovascular disease prevention. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2016 Mar 11;7:153-61.
World Health Organization (WHO). Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable diseases 2013-2020. WHO; Geneva, 2013.
Aguilar-Salinas CA, Gómez-Pérez FJ, Lerman-Garber I, Vázques-Chávez C, Pérez-Méndez O, Posadas-Romero C. [Diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemias: position of the Mexican Society of Nutrition and Endocrinology]. Rev Endocrinol y Nutr. 2004 Jan-Mar;12(1):7-41. Spanish.
Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social, Instituto de Evaluación Tecnológica en Salud, Universidad de Antioquia. [Clinical Practice Guidelines for Acute Coronary Syndrome]. Sistema General de Seguridad Social – Colombia. Guía completa. Tercera edición Guía no.17. Bogotá D.C: 2017. [cited 2017 Nov 13]; Available from: http://gpc.minsalud.gov.co/gpc_sites/Repositorio/Conv_500/GPC_s_coronario/gpc_s_coronario_profesionales.aspx. Spanish.
Sociedad Colombiana de Cardiologia y Cirugia Cardiovascular. [Colombian Consensus for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure]. Sociedad Colombiana de Cardiologia y Cirugia Cardiovascular, Bogota D.C.: 2014. [cited 2017 Nov 13]; Available from: http://scc.org.co/consenso-colombiano-para-el-diagnostico-y-tratamiento-de-la-insuficiencia-cardiaca-aguda-y-cronica/. Spanish.
Grisales-Quintero EC, Hernández-Calderón CA, Marín-Gómez JE, Muñoz-Valencia JA, Romo-Erazo BL, Ruiz-Mejía LD, et al. [Cardiovascular risk factors in medical students entering a Colombian University]. Rev Cuerpo Med. 2015;8(1):9-14. Spanish.
Wells JCK, Hallal PC, Reichert FF, Menezes AMB, Araújo CLP, Victora CG. Sleep patterns and television viewing in relation to obesity and blood pressure: evidence from an adolescent Brazilian birth cohort. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Jul;32(7):1042-9.
Batty GD, Leon DA. Socio-economic position and coronary heart disease risk factors in children and young people: Evidence from UK epidemiological studies. Eur J Public Health. 2002 Dec;12(4):263–72.
Longo-Mbenza B, Lukoki Luila E, M'Buyamba-Kabangu JR. Nutritional status, socio-economic status, heart rate, and blood pressure in African school children and adolescents. Int J Cardiol. 2007 Oct 1;121(2):171–7.
Christofaro DGD, Andrade SM de, Fernandes RA, Ohara D, Dias DF, Freitas Júnior IF, et al. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in scholars from Londrina, PR: differences between socioeconomic status. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2011 Mar; 14(1):27-35.
Carreras-González G, Ordóñez-Llanos J. [Adolescence, physical activity and metabolic factors of cardiovascular risk]. Rev Española Cardiol. 2007 Jun;60(6):565-8. Spanish.
Rodríguez-Morales AJ, Rafael Sanz L, Hidalgo G, Vásquez E, Sánchez W, Gollo O, et al. [Clinical and epidemiological aspects of blood pressure in pediatric population of the north coast axis center in Venezuela evaluated in the SENACREDH: I. Prevalence of values in range of prehypertension and hypertension]. Gac Med Caracas 2011;119(1):28-33. Spanish.
Intra MV, Roales-Nieto JG, San Pedro EM. [Changes in risk and health behaviors in Argentinian university students throughout the educational period]. Rev Int Psicol Ter Psicol. 2011 Mar; 11(1):139-47. sa
Bados-Enriquez DM, Arboleda-Prado DE, Rincón-Zapata AF, Ortiz-Martínez Y. Multidisciplinary College Camp for Services and Research (CUMIS) in Colombia: Experience and perspectives. Med Univ. 2016 Oct;18(73):210-1.
Marty M, Lavín GM, Figueroa MM, Larraín de la CD, Cruz MC. [Prevalence of stress in health sciences students at Los Andes University and its relation to infectious diseases]. Rev Chil Neuro-Psiquiatr. 2005 Mar;43(1):25-32. Spanish.
Guavita-Falla PM, Sanabria-Ferrand PA. [Depressive symptoms prevalence, in one medical student population. Universidad Militar Nueva Granada School of Medicine. Bogota-Colombia]. Rev Fac Med. 2006;54(2):76-87. Spanish.
Oviedo G, Morón De Salim A, Santos I, Sequera S, Soufrontt G, Suárez P, et al. [Risk factors of nontransmissible chronic diseases in students of medicine of carabobo university. Venezuela. Year 2006]. Nutr Hosp. 2008 May-Jun;23(3):288-93. Spanish.
Soriguer F, Valdés S, Tapia MJ, Esteva I, Ruiz de Adana MS, Almaraz MC, et al. [Validation of the FINDRISC (FINnish Diabetes RIsk SCore) for prediction of the risk of type 2 diabetes in a population of southern Spain. Pizarra Study]. Med Clin (Barc). 2012 Apr 14;138(9):371-6.
Observatorio Nacional de Salud. [Cardiovascular disease in Colombia]. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Boletin 1. Bogota D.C.; 2013. [cited 2017 Nov 13]; Available from: https://www.minsalud.gov.co/sites/rid/Lists/BibliotecaDigital/RIDE/IA/INS/Boletin-tecnico-1-ONS.pdf. esp
Perk J, De Backer G, Gohlke H, Graham I, Reiner Z, Verschuren M, et al. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Eur Heart J. 2012 Jul;33(13):1635-701.
Bertsias G, Mammas I, Linardakis M, Kafatos A. Overweight and obesity in relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors among medical students in Crete, Greece. BMC Public Health. 2003 Jan 8;3:3.
Morais PR, Sousa AL, Jardim Tde S, Nascente FM, Mendonça KL, Povoa TI, et al. Correlation of Insulin Resistance with Anthropometric Measures and Blood Pressure in Adolescents. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016 Apr;106(4):319-26.
Almonacid Urrego CC, Camarillo Romero MS, Gil Murcia Z, Medina Medina CY, Rebellón Marulanda JV, Mendieta Zerón H. [Evaluation of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in young university students of Santafe Locality from Bogota, Colombia]. NOVA. 2016; 13(25):35-45. Spanish.
Mantilla-Toloza, SC, Villamizar, CE, Peltze, K. [Alcohol, tobacco consumption and sociodemographic features associated in college students] Rev Univ Salud. 2016;18(1):7-15. Spanish.
Del Pilar M, Correa C, Del Carmen M, Quintero V, Murillo EN, Lucia O, et al. [Public Health Characteristics of a Private University Students in Manizales]. Hacia Promoc Salud. 2011 Jan-Jun;16(1):73-86. Spanish.
Hernández-Escolar J, Herazo-Beltrán Y, Valero MV. [The frequency of cardiovascular disease-associated risk factors in a university student population]. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota). 2010 Oct;12(5):852-64. Spanish.
Ministerio de Justicia y del Derecho - Observatorio de Drogas de Colombia, ODC. Reporte de Drogas Colombia 2016. 2nd edition. Bogota D.C.; 2016 [cited 2017 Nov 13]; Available from: http://www.odc.gov.co/Portals/1/publicaciones/pdf/odc-libro-blanco/ODC0100322016_reporte_drogas_colombia_2016.pdf. Spanish.
Lorenzo M, Cajaleón B, Gutiérrez E. [Prevalence and factors associated with alcohol and tobacco in studentsof nutrition career from a university in Lima-Peru]. Rev Peru Epidemiol. 2012 Dec;16(3):1-5. Spanish.
Morales G, Guillen-Grima F, Muñoz S, Belmar C, Schifferli I, Muñoz A, et al. [Cardiovascular risk factors among first and third year university students]. Rev Med Chile. 2017 Mar;145(3):299-308. Spanish.
Berg CJ, Ling PM, Hayes RB, Berg E, Nollen N, Nehl E, et al. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking. Health Educ Res. 2012 Feb;27(1):141-50.
Rangel Caballero LG, Rojas Sánchez LZ, Gamboa Delgado EM. [Overweight and obesity in colombian college students and its association with physical activity]. Nutr Hosp. 2015;31(2):629-36. Spanish.
Franks PW, Hanson RL, Knowler WC, Sievers ML, Bennett PH, Looker HC. Childhood Obesity, Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Premature Death. N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb;362(6):485-93.
Kosti RI, Panagiotakos DB. The Epidemic of Obesity in Children and Adolescents in the World. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2006 Dec;14(4):151-9.
Copyright (c) 2018 Diego Mauricio Bados Enriquez, Karoll Vanessa Ladino Oyola, Juan Esteban Yucuma Ruiz
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to email@example.com
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org