The Pandemic Leadership Model: A Study of Medical Student Values During COVID-19
Keywords:Leadership, Medical Education, Pandemic
Background: Leadership training in medical school continues to grow. Little information exists to guide leadership program development. Concurrently, the COVID-19 pandemic provides a real-world crucible of leadership, allowing insight into qualities and characteristics medical students value. We aim to determine what students value in leadership during a pandemic and the implicit framework students use.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, qualitative study using a five-item novel survey instrument developed by a consensus group of experts from family medicine, leadership development, medical education, and survey research to elicit student perceptions of effective and ineffective leadership qualities and examples during the COVID-19 pandemic at the University of Michigan Medical School. We used thematic analysis to identify overarching themes to build a model of leadership integrated with existing theory.
Results: 162 students participated across all years of medical school. We identified themes of Communication, Other-Orientation, Personal Characteristics, Decisive Action, and Use of Information. These five themes were then built into the model of Pandemic Leadership within the context of complexity leadership theory and collective leadership theory. This model represents qualities and characteristics students value in good leaders during a crisis.
Conclusion: This study is unique in its focus on student perceptions of leadership qualities during a real-world laboratory for leadership. We hope that this information, along with the pandemic leadership model, can serve as the first step toward relevant leadership training programs in medical education. Leadership training programs in medical education would likely benefit from grounding in the student values identified by this study.
Gawande AA. 2001. Creating the educated surgeon in the 21st century. Am J Surg 181:551–556.
Prybil LD. Size, composition, and culture of high-performing hospital boards. Am J Med Qual 2006;21:224–9.
Veronesi G, Kirkpatrick I, Vallascas F. Clinicians on the board: what difference does it make? Soc Sci Med 2013;77:147–55.
Stoller JK, Rose M, Lee R, Dolgan C, Hoogwerf BJ. 2004. Team building and leadership training in an internal medicine residency training program. J Gen Intern Med 19:692– 697.
Awad SS, Hayley B, Fagan SP, Berger DH, Brunicardi FC. 2004. The impact of a novel resident leadership training curriculum. Am J Surg 188:481–484
Doughty RA, Williams PD, Seashore CN. 1991. Chief resident training. Developing leadership skills for future medical leaders. Am J Dis Child 145:639–642.
McKimm J, Swanwick T. Leadership development for clinicians: What are we trying to achieve? Clin Teach. 2011;8:181–185
Webb, AMB, Tsipis NE, McClellan TR, et al. A first step toward understanding best practices in leadership training in undergraduate medical education: a systematic review. Acad Med. 2014;89(11):1563–1570.
Neeley, S. M., Clyne, B., & Resnick-Ault, D. (2017). The state of leadership education in US medical schools: results of a national survey. Medical education online, 22(1), 1301697.
Stringfellow, T. D., Rohrer, R. M., Loewenthal, L., et al. (2015). Defining the structure of undergraduate medical leadership and management teaching and assessment in the UK. Medical teacher, 37(8), 747-754.
Avolio BJ, Walumbwa FO, Weber TJ. Leadership: Current Theories, Research, and Future Directions. Annu Rev Psychol. 2009;60(1):421-449. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163621
Uhl-Bien M, Marion R, McKelvey B. Complexity Leadership Theory: Shifting leadership from the industrial age to the knowledge era. The Leadership Quarterly. 2007;18(4):298-318. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.04.002
Hazy JK, Goldstein JA, Lichtenstein BB. Complex systems leadership theory: An introduction. Complex systems leadership theory: New perspectives from complexity science on social and organizational effectiveness. 2007;1.
Day, David V., Peter Gronn, and Eduardo Salas. "Leadership capacity in teams." The Leadership Quarterly 15.6 (2004): 857-880.
Hamilton, Carol M., et al. "The PhenX Toolkit: get the most from your measures." American journal of epidemiology 174.3 (2011): 253-260.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Hsieh H-F, Shannon SE. Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis. Qual Health Res. 2005;15(9):1277-1288. doi:10.1177/1049732305276687
Boyatzis, Richard E. Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development. SAGE Publications, inc, 1998.
Patton, Michael Quinn. Qualitative evaluation and research methods. SAGE Publications, inc, 1990.
Clarke, Victoria, Virginia Braun, and Nikki Hayfield. "Thematic analysis." Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods (2015): 222-248.
Lord RG, Epitropaki O, Foti RJ, Hansbrough TK. Implicit Leadership Theories, Implicit Followership Theories, and Dynamic Processing of Leadership Information. Annu Rev Organ Psychol Organ Behav. 2020;7(1):49-74. doi:10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-012119-045434
Itani, K. M., Liscum, K., & Brunicardi, F. C. (2004). Physician leadership is a new mandate in surgical training. The American journal of surgery, 187(3), 328-331.
Hill, F., & Stephens, C. (2005). Building leadership capacity in medical education: developing the potential of course coordinators. Medical teacher, 27(2), 145-149.
Porter, J. E., & Fund, R. B. (2004). Academic health centers: Leading change in the 21st century. Academic Emergency Medicine, 11(7), 802-806.
Abbas, M. R., Quince, T. A., Wood, D. F., & Benson, J. A. (2011). Attitudes of medical students to medical leadership and management: a systematic review to inform curriculum development. BMC medical education, 11(1), 1-8.
Quince, T., Abbas, M., Murugesu, S., Crawley, F., Hyde, S., Wood, D., & Benson, J. (2014). Leadership and management in the undergraduate medical curriculum: a qualitative study of students’ attitudes and opinions at one UK medical school. BMJ open, 4(6).
Martins HM, Detmer DE, Rubery E. 2005. Perspectives on management education: An exploratory study of UK and Portuguese medical students. Med Teach 27:493–498.
Varkey, P., Peloquin, J., Reed, D., Lindor, K., & Harris, I. (2009). Leadership curriculum in undergraduate medical education: A study of student and faculty perspectives. Medical teacher, 31(3), 244-250.
Van Velsor, Ellen. "A complexity perspective on leadership development." Complexity leadership, part 1 (2008): 333-346.
Dhaliwal, G., & Sehgal, N. L. (2014). Demystify leadership in order to cultivate it. Academic Medicine, 89(11), 1441.
Arroliga, A. C., Huber, C., Myers, J. D., Dieckert, J. P., & Wesson, D. (2014). Leadership in health care for the 21st century: challenges and opportunities. The American journal of medicine, 127(3), 246-249.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Alec Bernard, Sarah C. Ortiz, Elizabeth Jones, Michael Heung, Timothy C. Guetterman, Nell Kirst
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to email@example.com
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org