The Pandemic Leadership Model: A Study of Medical Student Values During COVID-19

Authors

  • Alec Bernard BS, MS, fourth-year medical student, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1494-1322
  • Sarah C. Ortiz BS, fourth-year medical student, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • Elizabeth Jones MD, Assistant Professor of Family Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • Michael Heung MD, Professor of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • Timothy C. Guetterman PhD, Assistant Professor of Family Medicine and Associate Director of the Mixed Methods Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • Nell Kirst MD, Assistant Professor of Family Medicine and Co-director of the Medical School Leadership Development Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5195/ijms.2021.1001

Keywords:

Leadership, Medical Education, Pandemic

Abstract

Background: Leadership training in medical school continues to grow. Little information exists to guide leadership program development. Concurrently, the COVID-19 pandemic provides a real-world crucible of leadership, allowing insight into qualities and characteristics medical students value. We aim to determine what students value in leadership during a pandemic and the implicit framework students use.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, qualitative study using a five-item novel survey instrument developed by a consensus group of experts from family medicine, leadership development, medical education, and survey research to elicit student perceptions of effective and ineffective leadership qualities and examples during the COVID-19 pandemic at the University of Michigan Medical School. We used thematic analysis to identify overarching themes to build a model of leadership integrated with existing theory.

Results: 162 students participated across all years of medical school. We identified themes of Communication, Other-Orientation, Personal Characteristics, Decisive Action, and Use of Information. These five themes were then built into the model of Pandemic Leadership within the context of complexity leadership theory and collective leadership theory. This model represents qualities and characteristics students value in good leaders during a crisis.

Conclusion: This study is unique in its focus on student perceptions of leadership qualities during a real-world laboratory for leadership. We hope that this information, along with the pandemic leadership model, can serve as the first step toward relevant leadership training programs in medical education. Leadership training programs in medical education would likely benefit from grounding in the student values identified by this study.

Author Biographies

Elizabeth Jones, MD, Assistant Professor of Family Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

 

 

Michael Heung, MD, Professor of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

 

 

Timothy C. Guetterman, PhD, Assistant Professor of Family Medicine and Associate Director of the Mixed Methods Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

 

 

Nell Kirst, MD, Assistant Professor of Family Medicine and Co-director of the Medical School Leadership Development Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

 

 

References

Gawande AA. 2001. Creating the educated surgeon in the 21st century. Am J Surg 181:551–556.

Prybil LD. Size, composition, and culture of high-performing hospital boards. Am J Med Qual 2006;21:224–9.

Veronesi G, Kirkpatrick I, Vallascas F. Clinicians on the board: what difference does it make? Soc Sci Med 2013;77:147–55.

Stoller JK, Rose M, Lee R, Dolgan C, Hoogwerf BJ. 2004. Team building and leadership training in an internal medicine residency training program. J Gen Intern Med 19:692– 697.

Awad SS, Hayley B, Fagan SP, Berger DH, Brunicardi FC. 2004. The impact of a novel resident leadership training curriculum. Am J Surg 188:481–484

Doughty RA, Williams PD, Seashore CN. 1991. Chief resident training. Developing leadership skills for future medical leaders. Am J Dis Child 145:639–642.

McKimm J, Swanwick T. Leadership development for clinicians: What are we trying to achieve? Clin Teach. 2011;8:181–185

Webb, AMB, Tsipis NE, McClellan TR, et al. A first step toward understanding best practices in leadership training in undergraduate medical education: a systematic review. Acad Med. 2014;89(11):1563–1570.

Neeley, S. M., Clyne, B., & Resnick-Ault, D. (2017). The state of leadership education in US medical schools: results of a national survey. Medical education online, 22(1), 1301697.

Stringfellow, T. D., Rohrer, R. M., Loewenthal, L., et al. (2015). Defining the structure of undergraduate medical leadership and management teaching and assessment in the UK. Medical teacher, 37(8), 747-754.

Avolio BJ, Walumbwa FO, Weber TJ. Leadership: Current Theories, Research, and Future Directions. Annu Rev Psychol. 2009;60(1):421-449. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163621

Uhl-Bien M, Marion R, McKelvey B. Complexity Leadership Theory: Shifting leadership from the industrial age to the knowledge era. The Leadership Quarterly. 2007;18(4):298-318. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.04.002

Hazy JK, Goldstein JA, Lichtenstein BB. Complex systems leadership theory: An introduction. Complex systems leadership theory: New perspectives from complexity science on social and organizational effectiveness. 2007;1.

Day, David V., Peter Gronn, and Eduardo Salas. "Leadership capacity in teams." The Leadership Quarterly 15.6 (2004): 857-880.

Hamilton, Carol M., et al. "The PhenX Toolkit: get the most from your measures." American journal of epidemiology 174.3 (2011): 253-260.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101.

Hsieh H-F, Shannon SE. Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis. Qual Health Res. 2005;15(9):1277-1288. doi:10.1177/1049732305276687

Boyatzis, Richard E. Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development. SAGE Publications, inc, 1998.

Patton, Michael Quinn. Qualitative evaluation and research methods. SAGE Publications, inc, 1990.

Clarke, Victoria, Virginia Braun, and Nikki Hayfield. "Thematic analysis." Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods (2015): 222-248.

Lord RG, Epitropaki O, Foti RJ, Hansbrough TK. Implicit Leadership Theories, Implicit Followership Theories, and Dynamic Processing of Leadership Information. Annu Rev Organ Psychol Organ Behav. 2020;7(1):49-74. doi:10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-012119-045434

Itani, K. M., Liscum, K., & Brunicardi, F. C. (2004). Physician leadership is a new mandate in surgical training. The American journal of surgery, 187(3), 328-331.

Hill, F., & Stephens, C. (2005). Building leadership capacity in medical education: developing the potential of course coordinators. Medical teacher, 27(2), 145-149.

Porter, J. E., & Fund, R. B. (2004). Academic health centers: Leading change in the 21st century. Academic Emergency Medicine, 11(7), 802-806.

Abbas, M. R., Quince, T. A., Wood, D. F., & Benson, J. A. (2011). Attitudes of medical students to medical leadership and management: a systematic review to inform curriculum development. BMC medical education, 11(1), 1-8.

Quince, T., Abbas, M., Murugesu, S., Crawley, F., Hyde, S., Wood, D., & Benson, J. (2014). Leadership and management in the undergraduate medical curriculum: a qualitative study of students’ attitudes and opinions at one UK medical school. BMJ open, 4(6).

Martins HM, Detmer DE, Rubery E. 2005. Perspectives on management education: An exploratory study of UK and Portuguese medical students. Med Teach 27:493–498.

Varkey, P., Peloquin, J., Reed, D., Lindor, K., & Harris, I. (2009). Leadership curriculum in undergraduate medical education: A study of student and faculty perspectives. Medical teacher, 31(3), 244-250.

Van Velsor, Ellen. "A complexity perspective on leadership development." Complexity leadership, part 1 (2008): 333-346.

Dhaliwal, G., & Sehgal, N. L. (2014). Demystify leadership in order to cultivate it. Academic Medicine, 89(11), 1441.

Arroliga, A. C., Huber, C., Myers, J. D., Dieckert, J. P., & Wesson, D. (2014). Leadership in health care for the 21st century: challenges and opportunities. The American journal of medicine, 127(3), 246-249.

Published

2021-12-16 — Updated on 2022-01-06

Versions

How to Cite

Bernard, A., Ortiz, S. C., Jones, E., Heung, M., Guetterman, T. C. ., & Kirst, N. (2022). The Pandemic Leadership Model: A Study of Medical Student Values During COVID-19. International Journal of Medical Students, 9(4), 274–281. https://doi.org/10.5195/ijms.2021.1001 (Original work published December 16, 2021)

Issue

Section

Original Article